Command Section
TROFF(1)							      TROFF(1)

       troff - the troff processor of the groff	text formatting	system

       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [	-ffam ]	[ -Fdir	] [ -Idir ] [ -mname ]
	     [ -Mdir ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ]	[ -wname ]
	     [ -Wname ]	[ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line	option and its

       This manual page	describes the GNU version of troff.  It	is part	of the
       groff  document	formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many	extensions,  see  groff_diff(7).   Usually  it
       should  be  invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run pre-
       processors and postprocessors in	the appropriate	 order	and  with  the
       appropriate options.

       -a	 Generate an ASCII approximation of the	typeset	output.

       -b	 Print	a  backtrace with each warning or error	message.  This
		 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
		 line  numbers	given  in the backtrace	may not	always be cor-
		 rect, for troff's idea	of line	numbers	gets confused by as or
		 am requests.

       -c	 Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility	mode).

       -C	 Enable	compatibility mode.

       -dname=s	 Define	c or name to be	a string s; c must  be	a  one	letter

       -E	 Inhibit  all error messages of	troff.	Note that this doesn't
		 affect	messages output	to standard error  by  macro  packages
		 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam	 Use fam as the	default	font family.

       -Fdir	 Search	 in  directory (or directory path) dir for subdirecto-
		 ries devname (name is the name	of the device) and  there  for
		 the  DESC  file  and  font  files.  dir is scanned before all
		 other font directories.

       -i	 Read the standard input after all the named input files  have
		 been processed.

       -Idir	 This  option may be used to specify a directory to search for
		 files (both those on the command  line	 and  those  named  in
		 .psbb	requests).   The  current directory is always searched
		 first.	 This option may be  specified	more  than  once;  the
		 directories  will  be	searched  in  the order	specified.  No
		 directory search is performed for files  specified  using  an
		 absolute path.

       -mname	 Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try
		 instead.  It will be first searched for in directories	 given
		 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
		 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then	in the current
		 directory  (only  if  in  unsafe  mode),  the home directory,
		 /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and /usr/share/tmac.

       -Mdir	 Search	directory (or directory	path)  dir  for	 macro	files.
		 This is scanned before	all other macro	directories.

       -nnum	 Number	the first page num.

       -olist	 Output	only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
		 page ranges; n	means print page n, m-n	means print every page
		 between  m and	n, -n means print every	page up	to n, n- means
		 print every page from n.  troff will exit after printing  the
		 last page in the list.

       -rname=n	 Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
		 name; n can be	any troff numeric expression.

       -R	 Don't load troffrc and	troffrc-end.

       -Tname	 Prepare output	for device name, rather	than the  default  ps;
		 see groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U	 Unsafe	 mode.	This will enable the following requests: open,
		 opena,	pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons,	 these	poten-
		 tially	 dangerous  requests  are disabled otherwise.  It will
		 also add the current directory	to the macro search path.

       -v	 Print the version number.

       -wname	 Enable	warning	name.  Available warnings are described	in the
		 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
		 use -w	all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname	 Inhibit warning name.	Multiple -W options are	allowed.

       -z	 Suppress formatted output.

       The warnings that can be	given by troff are divided into	the  following
       categories.   The  name	associated with	each warning is	used by	the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the  warn	request,  and  by  the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

		 |Bit	Code   Warning | Bit	Code	  Warning   |
		 |  0	   1   char    |  10	 1024	reg	    |
		 |  1	   2   number  |  11	 2048	tab	    |
		 |  2	   4   break   |  12	 4096	right-brace |
		 |  3	   8   delim   |  13	 8192	missing	    |
		 |  4	  16   el      |  14	16384	input	    |
		 |  5	  32   scale   |  15	32768	escape	    |
		 |  6	  64   range   |  16	65536	space	    |
		 |  7	 128   syntax  |  17   131072	font	    |
		 |  8	 256   di      |  18   262144	ig	    |
		 |  9	 512   mac     |  19   524288	color	    |

       break	       4   In fill mode, lines which could not	be  broken  so
			   that	 their	length	was less than the line length.
			   This	is enabled by default.

       char	       1   Non-existent	 characters.   This  is	  enabled   by

       color	  524288   Color related warnings.

       delim	       8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di	     256   Use	of  di or da without an	argument when there is
			   no current diversion.

       el	      16   Use of the el request with no matching ie  request.

       escape	   32768   Unrecognized	 escape	 sequences.   When an unrecog-
			   nized escape	sequence is  encountered,  the	escape
			   character is	ignored.

       font	  131072   Non-existent	fonts.	This is	enabled	by default.

       ig	  262144   Invalid   escapes  in  text	ignored	 with  the  ig
			   request.  These are conditions that are errors when
			   they	do not occur in	ignored	text.

       input	   16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac	     512   Use	of  undefined  strings,	macros and diversions.
			   When	an undefined string,  macro  or	 diversion  is
			   used,  that	string	is  automatically  defined  as
			   empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
			   be given for	each name.

       missing	    8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number	       2   Invalid  numeric  expressions.   This is enabled by

       range	      64   Out of range	arguments.

       reg	    1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When  an	 unde-
			   fined  number  register  is	used, that register is
			   automatically defined to have a value of 0.	So, in
			   most	 cases,	 at most one warning will be given for
			   use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was	expected.

       scale	      32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space	   65536   Missing space between a request or  macro  and  its
			   argument.  This warning will	be given when an unde-
			   fined name longer than two  characters  is  encoun-
			   tered,  and	the  first  two	characters of the name
			   make	a defined name.	 The request or	macro will not
			   be  invoked.	  When this warning is given, no macro
			   is  automatically  defined.	 This  is  enabled  by
			   default.  This warning will never occur in compati-
			   bility mode.

       syntax	     128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab	    2048   Inappropriate use of	a tab character.   Either  use
			   of  a tab character where a number was expected, or
			   use of tab character	in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be	used to	refer to groups	of warnings:

       all    All  warnings except di, mac, and	reg.  It is intended that this
	      covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack-

       w      All warnings.

	      A	 colon	separated  list	 of directories	in which to search for
	      macro files.  troff will scan directories	given in the -M	option
	      before  these, and in standard directories (current directory if
	      in    unsafe    mode,    home    directory,     /usr/share/tmac,
	      /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac)	after these.

	      Default device.

	      A	colon separated	list of	directories in which to	search for the
	      devname directory.  troff	will scan directories given in the  -F
	      option	before	  these,    and	   in	standard   directories
	      (/usr/share/groff_font,			/usr/share/groff_font,
	      /usr/share/groff_font) after these.

	      Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

	      Initialization file (called after	any other macro	package).

	      Macro files

	      Device description file for device name.

	      Font file	for font F of device name.

       Note  that  troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched	in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for	security reasons (even if  the
       -U   option  is	given).	  Use  the  -M	command	 line  option  or  the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these  directories  to  the
       search path if necessary.

       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is	distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.	 You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft	site  <>.	This  document
       was  written  by	 James	Clark,	with modifications from	Werner Lemberg
       <[email protected]> and	Bernd Warken <[email protected]>

       This document is	part of	groff, the GNU roff distribution.

	      The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

	      A	description of the groff language, including a short but  com-
	      plete  reference	of  all	 predefined  requests,	registers, and
	      escapes of plain groff.  From the	command	line, this  is	called

		     man 7 groff

	      The  differences	of  the	groff language and the classical troff
	      language.	 Currently, this is the	most actual  document  of  the
	      groff system.

	      An  overview over	groff and other	roff systems, including	point-
	      ers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.	 info(1),  presents  all  groff	 documentation
       within a	single document.

Groff Version 1.19.2	       4 September 2005			      TROFF(1)
Command Section