Command Section
curs_terminfo(3X)                                            curs_terminfo(3X)

       del_curterm, mvcur, putp, restartterm, set_curterm, setterm, setupterm,
       tigetflag, tigetnum, tigetstr, tiparm, tparm, tputs, vid_attr,
       vid_puts, vidattr, vidputs - curses interfaces to terminfo database

       #include <curses.h>
       #include <term.h>

       int setupterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
       int setterm(char *term);
       TERMINAL *set_curterm(TERMINAL *nterm);
       int del_curterm(TERMINAL *oterm);
       int restartterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
       char *tparm(char *str, ...);
       int tputs(const char *str, int affcnt, int (*putc)(int));)(int));
       int putp(const char *str);
       int vidputs(chtype attrs, int (*putc)(int));)(int));
       int vidattr(chtype attrs);
       int vid_puts(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts, int (*putc)(int));)(int));
       int vid_attr(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts);
       int mvcur(int oldrow, int oldcol, int newrow, int newcol);
       int tigetflag(char *capname);
       int tigetnum(char *capname);
       char *tigetstr(char *capname);
       char *tiparm(const char *str, ...);

       These low-level routines must be called by programs that have to deal
       directly with the terminfo database to handle certain terminal
       capabilities, such as programming function keys.  For all other
       functionality, curses routines are more suitable and their use is

       Initially, setupterm should be called.  Note that setupterm is
       automatically called by initscr and newterm.  This defines the set of
       terminal-dependent variables [listed in terminfo(5)].

       Each initialization routine provides applications with the terminal
       capabilities either directly (via header definitions), or by special
       functions.  The header files curses.h and term.h should be included (in
       this order) to get the definitions for these strings, numbers, and

       The terminfo variables lines and columns are initialized by setupterm
       as follows:

        If use_env(FALSE) has been called, values for lines and columns
           specified in terminfo are used.

        Otherwise, if the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS exist,
           their values are used.  If these environment variables do not exist
           and the program is running in a window, the current window size is
           used.  Otherwise, if the environment variables do not exist, the
           values for lines and columns specified in the terminfo database are

       Parameterized strings should be passed through tparm to instantiate
       them.  All terminfo strings [including the output of tparm] should be
       printed with tputs or putp.  Call reset_shell_mode to restore the tty
       modes before exiting [see curs_kernel(3X)].

       Programs which use cursor addressing should

        output enter_ca_mode upon startup and

        output exit_ca_mode before exiting.

       Programs which execute shell subprocesses should

        call reset_shell_mode and output exit_ca_mode before the shell is
           called and

        output enter_ca_mode and call reset_prog_mode after returning from
           the shell.

       The setupterm routine reads in the terminfo database, initializing the
       terminfo structures, but does not set up the output virtualization
       structures used by curses.  The terminal type is the character string
       term; if term is null, the environment variable TERM is used.  All
       output is to file descriptor fildes which is initialized for output.
       If errret is not null, then setupterm returns OK or ERR and stores a
       status value in the integer pointed to by errret.  A return value of OK
       combined with status of 1 in errret is normal.  If ERR is returned,
       examine errret:

       1    means that the terminal is hardcopy, cannot be used for curses

            setupterm determines if the entry is a hardcopy type by checking
            the hc (hardcopy) capability.

       0    means that the terminal could not be found, or that it is a
            generic type, having too little information for curses
            applications to run.

            setupterm determines if the entry is a generic type by checking
            the gn (generic) capability.

       -1   means that the terminfo database could not be found.

       If errret is null, setupterm prints an error message upon finding an
       error and exits.  Thus, the simplest call is:

             setupterm((char *)0, 1, (int *)0);,

       which uses all the defaults and sends the output to stdout.

       The setterm routine was replaced by setupterm.  The call:

             setupterm(term, 1, (int *)0)

       provides the same functionality as setterm(term).  The setterm routine
       is provided for BSD compatibility, and is not recommended for new

   The Terminal State
       The setupterm routine stores its information about the terminal in a
       TERMINAL structure pointed to by the global variable cur_term.  If it
       detects an error, or decides that the terminal is unsuitable (hardcopy
       or generic), it discards this information, making it not available to

       If setupterm is called repeatedly for the same terminal type, it will
       reuse the information.  It maintains only one copy of a given
       terminal's capabilities in memory.  If it is called for different
       terminal types, setupterm allocates new storage for each set of
       terminal capabilities.

       The set_curterm routine sets cur_term to nterm, and makes all of the
       terminfo boolean, numeric, and string variables use the values from
       nterm.  It returns the old value of cur_term.

       The del_curterm routine frees the space pointed to by oterm and makes
       it available for further use.  If oterm is the same as cur_term,
       references to any of the terminfo boolean, numeric, and string
       variables thereafter may refer to invalid memory locations until
       another setupterm has been called.

       The restartterm routine is similar to setupterm and initscr, except
       that it is called after restoring memory to a previous state (for
       example, when reloading a game saved as a core image dump).
       restartterm assumes that the windows and the input and output options
       are the same as when memory was saved, but the terminal type and baud
       rate may be different.  Accordingly, restartterm saves various tty
       state bits, calls setupterm, and then restores the bits.

   Formatting Output
       The tparm routine instantiates the string str with parameters pi.  A
       pointer is returned to the result of str with the parameters applied.

       tiparm is a newer form of tparm which uses <stdarg.h> rather than a
       fixed-parameter list.  Its numeric parameters are integers (int) rather
       than longs.

   Output Functions
       The tputs routine applies padding information to the string str and
       outputs it.  The str must be a terminfo string variable or the return
       value from tparm, tgetstr, or tgoto.  affcnt is the number of lines
       affected, or 1 if not applicable.  putc is a putchar-like routine to
       which the characters are passed, one at a time.

       The putp routine calls tputs(str, 1, putchar).  Note that the output of
       putp always goes to stdout, not to the fildes specified in setupterm.

       The vidputs routine displays the string on the terminal in the video
       attribute mode attrs, which is any combination of the attributes listed
       in curses(3X).  The characters are passed to the putchar-like routine

       The vidattr routine is like the vidputs routine, except that it outputs
       through putchar.

       The vid_attr and vid_puts routines correspond to vidattr and vidputs,
       respectively.  They use a set of arguments for representing the video
       attributes plus color, i.e., one of type attr_t for the attributes and
       one of short for the color_pair number.  The vid_attr and vid_puts
       routines are designed to use the attribute constants with the WA_
       prefix.  The opts argument is reserved for future use.  Currently,
       applications must provide a null pointer for that argument.

       The mvcur routine provides low-level cursor motion.  It takes effect
       immediately (rather than at the next refresh).

   Terminal Capability Functions
       The tigetflag, tigetnum and tigetstr routines return the value of the
       capability corresponding to the terminfo capname passed to them, such
       as xenl.  The capname for each capability is given in the table column
       entitled capname code in the capabilities section of terminfo(5).

       These routines return special values to denote errors.

       The tigetflag routine returns

       -1     if capname is not a boolean capability, or

       0      if it is canceled or absent from the terminal description.

       The tigetnum routine returns

       -2     if capname is not a numeric capability, or

       -1     if it is canceled or absent from the terminal description.

       The tigetstr routine returns

       (char *)-1
              if capname is not a string capability, or

       0      if it is canceled or absent from the terminal description.

   Terminal Capability Names
       These null-terminated arrays contain the short terminfo names
       ("codes"), the termcap names, and the long terminfo names ("fnames")
       for each of the predefined terminfo variables:
              char *boolnames[], *boolcodes[], *boolfnames[]

              char *numnames[], *numcodes[], *numfnames[]

              char *strnames[], *strcodes[], *strfnames[]

       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and OK (SVr4
       only specifies "an integer value other than ERR") upon successful
       completion, unless otherwise noted in the preceding routine

       Routines that return pointers always return NULL on error.

       X/Open defines no error conditions.  In this implementation

                 returns an error if its terminal parameter is null.

            putp calls tputs, returning the same error-codes.

                 returns an error if the associated call to setupterm returns
                 an error.

                 returns an error if it cannot allocate enough memory, or
                 create the initial windows (stdscr, curscr, newscr).  Other
                 error conditions are documented above.

                 returns an error if the string parameter is null.  It does
                 not detect I/O errors: X/Open states that tputs ignores the
                 return value of the output function putc.

       X/Open notes that vidattr and vidputs may be macros.

       The function setterm is not described by X/Open and must be considered
       non-portable.  All other functions are as described by X/Open.

       setupterm copies the terminal name to the array ttytype.  This is not
       part of X/Open Curses, but is assumed by some applications.

       If configured to use the terminal-driver, e.g., for the MinGW port,

        setupterm interprets a missing/empty TERM variable as the special
           value "unknown".

        setupterm allows explicit use of the the windows console driver by
           checking if $TERM is set to "#win32con" or an abbreviation of that

       Older versions of ncurses assumed that the file descriptor passed to
       setupterm from initscr or newterm uses buffered I/O, and would write to
       the corresponding stream.  In addition to the limitation that the
       terminal was left in block-buffered mode on exit (like SystemV curses),
       it was problematic because ncurses did not allow a reliable way to
       cleanup on receiving SIGTSTP.  The current version uses output buffers
       managed directly by ncurses.  Some of the low-level functions described
       in this manual page write to the standard output.  They are not signal-
       safe.  The high-level functions in ncurses use alternate versions of
       these functions using the more reliable buffering scheme.

       In System V Release 4, set_curterm has an int return type and returns
       OK or ERR.  We have chosen to implement the X/Open Curses semantics.

       In System V Release 4, the third argument of tputs has the type int

       At least one implementation of X/Open Curses (Solaris) returns a value
       other than OK/ERR from tputs.  That returns the length of the string,
       and does no error-checking.

       X/Open Curses prototypes tparm with a fixed number of parameters,
       rather than a variable argument list.  This implementation uses a
       variable argument list, but can be configured to use the fixed-
       parameter list.  Portable applications should provide 9 parameters
       after the format; zeroes are fine for this purpose.

       In response to comments by Thomas E. Dickey, X/Open Curses Issue 7
       proposed the tiparm function in mid-2009.

       X/Open notes that after calling mvcur, the curses state may not match
       the actual terminal state, and that an application should touch and
       refresh the window before resuming normal curses calls.  Both ncurses
       and System V Release 4 curses implement mvcur using the SCREEN data
       allocated in either initscr or newterm.  So though it is documented as
       a terminfo function, mvcur is really a curses function which is not
       well specified.

       X/Open states that the old location must be given for mvcur.  This
       implementation allows the caller to use -1's for the old ordinates.  In
       that case, the old location is unknown.

       Other implementions may not declare the capability name arrays.  Some
       provide them without declaring them.  X/Open does not specify them.

       Extended terminal capability names, e.g., as defined by tic -x, are not
       stored in the arrays described here.

       curses(3X), curs_initscr(3X), curs_kernel(3X), curs_termcap(3X),
       curs_variables(3X), term_variables(3X), putc(3), terminfo(5)

Command Section