Command Section
terminfo(5)			 File Formats			   terminfo(5)

       terminfo	- terminal capability data base


       Terminfo	 is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs	such as	nvi(1),	rogue(1) and  libraries	 such  as  curses(3X).
       Terminfo	describes terminals by giving a	set of capabilities which they
       have, by	specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding	requirements  and  initialization  sequences.	This describes
       ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20140222).

       Entries in terminfo consist of  a  sequence  of	`,'  separated	fields
       (embedded  commas  may be escaped with a	backslash or notated as	\054).
       White space after the `,' separator is ignored.	The  first  entry  for
       each  terminal  gives the names which are known for the terminal, sepa-
       rated by	`|' characters.	 The first  name  given	 is  the  most	common
       abbreviation  for  the  terminal,  the last name	given should be	a long
       name fully identifying the terminal, and	all others are	understood  as
       synonyms	 for  the  terminal name.  All names but the last should be in
       lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well	contain	 upper
       case and	blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated as comments.
       While comment lines are legal at	any point, the output  of  @[email protected]
       and @[email protected] (aliases	for tic) will move comments so they occur only
       between entries.

       Newlines	and leading tabs may be	used for formatting entries for	 read-
       ability.	 These are removed from	parsed entries.	 The infocmp -f	option
       relies on this to format	if-then-else expressions: the  result  can  be
       read by tic.

       Terminal	 names	(except	 for the last, verbose entry) should be	chosen
       using the following conventions.	 The particular	piece of hardware mak-
       ing  up the terminal should have	a root name, thus "hp2621".  This name
       should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can	be in, or user
       preferences,  should be indicated by appending a	hyphen and a mode suf-
       fix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.	 The following
       suffixes	should be used where possible:

	    Suffix		    Meaning		      Example
	    -nn	     Number of lines on	the screen	      aaa-60
	    -np	     Number of pages of	memory		      c100-4p
	    -am	     With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
	    -m	     Mono mode;	suppress color		      ansi-m
	    -mc	     Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
	    -na	     No	arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
	    -nam     Without automatic margins		      vt100-nam
	    -nl	     No	status line			      att4415-nl
	    -ns	     No	status line			      hp2626-ns
	    -rv	     Reverse video			      c100-rv
	    -s	     Enable status line			      vt100-s
	    -vb	     Use visible bell instead of beep	      wy370-vb
	    -w	     Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more	on terminal naming conventions,	see the	term(7)	manual page.

   Predefined Capabilities
       The  following  is  a  complete table of	the capabilities included in a
       terminfo	description block and available	to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the	table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by	 which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short	name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by	 a  person updating the	database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be	the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded	 by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).	Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica-

       The  termcap code is the	old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new,	and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names	have no	hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them	short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally,	the description	field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You	may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates	that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is	passed
	      through tparm with parms as given	(#i).

       (P*)   indicates	that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
	      lines affected

       (#i)   indicates	the ith	parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
	       Booleans		     name	Code
       auto_left_margin		     bw		bw	  cub1 wraps from col-
							  umn 0	to last	column
       auto_right_margin	     am		am	  terminal has auto-
							  matic	margins
       back_color_erase		     bce	ut	  screen erased	with
							  background color
       can_change		     ccc	cc	  terminal can re-
							  define existing col-
       ceol_standout_glitch	     xhp	xs	  standout not erased
							  by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch		     xhpa	YA	  only positive	motion
							  for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res		     cpix	YF	  changing character
							  pitch	changes	reso-
       cr_cancels_micro_mode	     crxm	YB	  using	cr turns off
							  micro	mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso	     xt		xt	  tabs destructive,
							  magic	so char
       eat_newline_glitch	     xenl	xn	  newline ignored
							  after	80 cols	(con-
       erase_overstrike		     eo		eo	  can erase over-
							  strikes with a blank
       generic_type		     gn		gn	  generic line type
       hard_copy		     hc		hc	  hardcopy terminal

       hard_cursor		     chts	HC	  cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key		     km		km	  Has a	meta key
							  (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel		     daisy	YC	  printer needs	opera-
							  tor to change	char-
							  acter	set
       has_status_line		     hs		hs	  has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation	     hls	hl	  terminal uses	only
							  HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch	     in		in	  insert mode distin-
							  guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res		     lpix	YG	  changing line	pitch
							  changes resolution
       memory_above		     da		da	  display may be
							  retained above the
       memory_below		     db		db	  display may be
							  retained below the
       move_insert_mode		     mir	mi	  safe to move while
							  in insert mode
       move_standout_mode	     msgr	ms	  safe to move while
							  in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff		     nxon	nx	  padding will not
							  work,	xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc		     xsb	xb	  beehive (f1=escape,
							  f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char		     npc	NP	  pad character	does
							  not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region	     ndscr	ND	  scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup		     nrrmc	NR	  smcup	does not
							  reverse rmcup
       over_strike		     os		os	  terminal can over-
       prtr_silent		     mc5i	5i	  printer will not
							  echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch		     xvpa	YD	  only positive	motion
							  for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin	     sam	YE	  printing in last
							  column causes	cr
       status_line_esc_ok	     eslok	es	  escape can be	used
							  on the status	line
       tilde_glitch		     hz		hz	  cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline	     ul		ul	  underline character
       xon_xoff			     xon	xo	  terminal uses
							  xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

	    Variable		 Cap-	      TCap	      Description
	     Numeric		 name	      Code
       columns			 cols	      co	  number of columns in
							  a line
       init_tabs		 it	      it	  tabs initially every
							  # spaces
       label_height		 lh	      lh	  rows in each label
       label_width		 lw	      lw	  columns in each

       lines			 lines	      li	  number of lines on
							  screen or page
       lines_of_memory		 lm	      lm	  lines	of memory if >
							  line.	0 means	varies
       magic_cookie_glitch	 xmc	      sg	  number of blank
							  characters left by
							  smso or rmso
       max_attributes		 ma	      ma	  maximum combined
							  attributes terminal
							  can handle
       max_colors		 colors	      Co	  maximum number of
							  colors on screen
       max_pairs		 pairs	      pa	  maximum number of
							  color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows		 wnum	      MW	  maximum number of
							  defineable windows
       no_color_video		 ncv	      NC	  video	attributes
							  that cannot be used
							  with colors
       num_labels		 nlab	      Nl	  number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate	 pb	      pb	  lowest baud rate
							  where	padding	needed
       virtual_terminal		 vt	      vt	  virtual terminal
							  number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line	 wsl	      ws	  number of columns in
							  status line

       The following numeric capabilities  are	present	 in  the  SVr4.0  term
       structure,  but	are  not yet documented	in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.

	     Variable		  Cap-	       TCap	      Description
	     Numeric		  name	       Code
       bit_image_entwining	  bitwin       Yo	  number of passes for
							  each bit-image row
       bit_image_type		  bitype       Yp	  type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity		  bufsz	       Ya	  numbers of bytes
							  buffered before
       buttons			  btns	       BT	  number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing		  spinh	       Yc	  spacing of dots hor-
							  izontally in dots
							  per inch
       dot_vert_spacing		  spinv	       Yb	  spacing of pins ver-
							  tically in pins per
       max_micro_address	  maddr	       Yd	  maximum value	in
       max_micro_jump		  mjump	       Ye	  maximum value	in
       micro_col_size		  mcs	       Yf	  character step size
							  when in micro	mode
       micro_line_size		  mls	       Yg	  line step size when
							  in micro mode
       number_of_pins		  npins	       Yh	  numbers of pins in
       output_res_char		  orc	       Yi	  horizontal resolu-
							  tion in units	per
       output_res_horz_inch	  orhi	       Yk	  horizontal resolu-
							  tion in units	per

       output_res_line		  orl	       Yj	  vertical resolution
							  in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch	  orvi	       Yl	  vertical resolution
							  in units per inch
       print_rate		  cps	       Ym	  print	rate in	char-
							  acters per second
       wide_char_size		  widcs	       Yn	  character step size
							  when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
		String		     name	Code
       acs_chars		     acsc	ac	  graphics charset
							  pairs, based on
       back_tab			     cbt	bt	  back tab (P)
       bell			     bel	bl	  audible signal
							  (bell) (P)
       carriage_return		     cr		cr	  carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch	     cpi	ZA	  Change number	of
							  characters per inch
							  to #1
       change_line_pitch	     lpi	ZB	  Change number	of
							  lines	per inch to #1
       change_res_horz		     chr	ZC	  Change horizontal
							  resolution to	#1
       change_res_vert		     cvr	ZD	  Change vertical res-
							  olution to #1
       change_scroll_region	     csr	cs	  change region	to
							  line #1 to line #2
       char_padding		     rmp	rP	  like ip but when in
							  insert mode
       clear_all_tabs		     tbc	ct	  clear	all tab	stops
       clear_margins		     mgc	MC	  clear	right and left
							  soft margins
       clear_screen		     clear	cl	  clear	screen and
							  home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol			     el1	cb	  Clear	to beginning
							  of line
       clr_eol			     el		ce	  clear	to end of line
       clr_eos			     ed		cd	  clear	to end of
							  screen (P*)
       column_address		     hpa	ch	  horizontal position
							  #1, absolute (P)
       command_character	     cmdch	CC	  terminal settable
							  cmd character	in
							  prototype !?
       create_window		     cwin	CW	  define a window #1
							  from #2,#3 to	#4,#5
       cursor_address		     cup	cm	  move to row #1 col-
							  umns #2
       cursor_down		     cud1	do	  down one line
       cursor_home		     home	ho	  home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible		     civis	vi	  make cursor invisi-
       cursor_left		     cub1	le	  move left one	space
       cursor_mem_address	     mrcup	CM	  memory relative cur-
							  sor addressing, move
							  to row #1 columns #2

       cursor_normal		     cnorm	ve	  make cursor appear
							  normal (undo
       cursor_right		     cuf1	nd	  non-destructive
							  space	(move right
							  one space)
       cursor_to_ll		     ll		ll	  last line, first
							  column (if no	cup)
       cursor_up		     cuu1	up	  up one line
       cursor_visible		     cvvis	vs	  make cursor very
       define_char		     defc	ZE	  Define a character
							  #1, #2 dots wide,
							  descender #3
       delete_character		     dch1	dc	  delete character
       delete_line		     dl1	dl	  delete line (P*)
       dial_phone		     dial	DI	  dial number #1
       dis_status_line		     dsl	ds	  disable status line
       display_clock		     dclk	DK	  display clock
       down_half_line		     hd		hd	  half a line down
       ena_acs			     enacs	eA	  enable alternate
							  char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode	     smacs	as	  start	alternate
							  character set	(P)
       enter_am_mode		     smam	SA	  turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode		     blink	mb	  turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode		     bold	md	  turn on bold (extra
							  bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode		     smcup	ti	  string to start pro-
							  grams	using cup
       enter_delete_mode	     smdc	dm	  enter	delete mode
       enter_dim_mode		     dim	mh	  turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode	     swidm	ZF	  Enter	double-wide
       enter_draft_quality	     sdrfq	ZG	  Enter	draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode	     smir	im	  enter	insert mode
       enter_italics_mode	     sitm	ZH	  Enter	italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode	     slm	ZI	  Start	leftward car-
							  riage	motion
       enter_micro_mode		     smicm	ZJ	  Start	micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq	ZK	  Enter	NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality	     snrmq	ZL	  Enter	normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode	     prot	mp	  turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode	     rev	mr	  turn on reverse
							  video	mode
       enter_secure_mode	     invis	mk	  turn on blank	mode
							  (characters invisi-
       enter_shadow_mode	     sshm	ZM	  Enter	shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode	     smso	so	  begin	standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode	     ssubm	ZN	  Enter	subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode	     ssupm	ZO	  Enter	superscript
       enter_underline_mode	     smul	us	  begin	underline mode
       enter_upward_mode	     sum	ZP	  Start	upward car-
							  riage	motion
       enter_xon_mode		     smxon	SX	  turn on xon/xoff

       erase_chars		     ech	ec	  erase	#1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode	     rmacs	ae	  end alternate	char-
							  acter	set (P)
       exit_am_mode		     rmam	RA	  turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode	     sgr0	me	  turn off all
       exit_ca_mode		     rmcup	te	  strings to end pro-
							  grams	using cup
       exit_delete_mode		     rmdc	ed	  end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode	     rwidm	ZQ	  End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode		     rmir	ei	  exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode	     ritm	ZR	  End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode	     rlm	ZS	  End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode		     rmicm	ZT	  End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode		     rshm	ZU	  End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode	     rmso	se	  exit standout	mode
       exit_subscript_mode	     rsubm	ZV	  End subscript	mode
       exit_superscript_mode	     rsupm	ZW	  End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode	     rmul	ue	  exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode		     rum	ZX	  End reverse charac-
							  ter motion
       exit_xon_mode		     rmxon	RX	  turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause		     pause	PA	  pause	for 2-3	sec-
       flash_hook		     hook	fh	  flash	switch hook
       flash_screen		     flash	vb	  visible bell (may
							  not move cursor)
       form_feed		     ff		ff	  hardcopy terminal
							  page eject (P*)
       from_status_line		     fsl	fs	  return from status
       goto_window		     wingo	WG	  go to	window #1
       hangup			     hup	HU	  hang-up phone
       init_1string		     is1	i1	  initialization
       init_2string		     is2	is	  initialization
       init_3string		     is3	i3	  initialization
       init_file		     if		if	  name of initializa-
							  tion file
       init_prog		     iprog	iP	  path name of program
							  for initialization
       initialize_color		     initc	Ic	  initialize color #1
							  to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair		     initp	Ip	  Initialize color
							  pair #1 to
       insert_character		     ich1	ic	  insert character (P)
       insert_line		     il1	al	  insert line (P*)
       insert_padding		     ip		ip	  insert padding after
							  inserted character
       key_a1			     ka1	K1	  upper	left of	keypad
       key_a3			     ka3	K3	  upper	right of key-
       key_b2			     kb2	K2	  center of keypad
       key_backspace		     kbs	kb	  backspace key
       key_beg			     kbeg	@1	  begin	key
       key_btab			     kcbt	kB	  back-tab key
       key_c1			     kc1	K4	  lower	left of	keypad

       key_c3			     kc3	K5	  lower	right of key-
       key_cancel		     kcan	@2	  cancel key
       key_catab		     ktbc	ka	  clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear		     kclr	kC	  clear-screen or
							  erase	key
       key_close		     kclo	@3	  close	key
       key_command		     kcmd	@4	  command key
       key_copy			     kcpy	@5	  copy key
       key_create		     kcrt	@6	  create key
       key_ctab			     kctab	kt	  clear-tab key
       key_dc			     kdch1	kD	  delete-character key
       key_dl			     kdl1	kL	  delete-line key
       key_down			     kcud1	kd	  down-arrow key
       key_eic			     krmir	kM	  sent by rmir or smir
							  in insert mode
       key_end			     kend	@7	  end key
       key_enter		     kent	@8	  enter/send key
       key_eol			     kel	kE	  clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos			     ked	kS	  clear-to-end-of-
							  screen key
       key_exit			     kext	@9	  exit key
       key_f0			     kf0	k0	  F0 function key
       key_f1			     kf1	k1	  F1 function key
       key_f10			     kf10	k;	  F10 function key
       key_f11			     kf11	F1	  F11 function key
       key_f12			     kf12	F2	  F12 function key
       key_f13			     kf13	F3	  F13 function key
       key_f14			     kf14	F4	  F14 function key
       key_f15			     kf15	F5	  F15 function key
       key_f16			     kf16	F6	  F16 function key
       key_f17			     kf17	F7	  F17 function key
       key_f18			     kf18	F8	  F18 function key
       key_f19			     kf19	F9	  F19 function key
       key_f2			     kf2	k2	  F2 function key
       key_f20			     kf20	FA	  F20 function key
       key_f21			     kf21	FB	  F21 function key
       key_f22			     kf22	FC	  F22 function key
       key_f23			     kf23	FD	  F23 function key
       key_f24			     kf24	FE	  F24 function key
       key_f25			     kf25	FF	  F25 function key
       key_f26			     kf26	FG	  F26 function key
       key_f27			     kf27	FH	  F27 function key
       key_f28			     kf28	FI	  F28 function key
       key_f29			     kf29	FJ	  F29 function key
       key_f3			     kf3	k3	  F3 function key
       key_f30			     kf30	FK	  F30 function key
       key_f31			     kf31	FL	  F31 function key
       key_f32			     kf32	FM	  F32 function key
       key_f33			     kf33	FN	  F33 function key
       key_f34			     kf34	FO	  F34 function key
       key_f35			     kf35	FP	  F35 function key
       key_f36			     kf36	FQ	  F36 function key
       key_f37			     kf37	FR	  F37 function key
       key_f38			     kf38	FS	  F38 function key
       key_f39			     kf39	FT	  F39 function key
       key_f4			     kf4	k4	  F4 function key
       key_f40			     kf40	FU	  F40 function key
       key_f41			     kf41	FV	  F41 function key
       key_f42			     kf42	FW	  F42 function key
       key_f43			     kf43	FX	  F43 function key
       key_f44			     kf44	FY	  F44 function key
       key_f45			     kf45	FZ	  F45 function key
       key_f46			     kf46	Fa	  F46 function key
       key_f47			     kf47	Fb	  F47 function key
       key_f48			     kf48	Fc	  F48 function key

       key_f49			     kf49	Fd	  F49 function key
       key_f5			     kf5	k5	  F5 function key
       key_f50			     kf50	Fe	  F50 function key
       key_f51			     kf51	Ff	  F51 function key
       key_f52			     kf52	Fg	  F52 function key
       key_f53			     kf53	Fh	  F53 function key
       key_f54			     kf54	Fi	  F54 function key
       key_f55			     kf55	Fj	  F55 function key
       key_f56			     kf56	Fk	  F56 function key
       key_f57			     kf57	Fl	  F57 function key
       key_f58			     kf58	Fm	  F58 function key
       key_f59			     kf59	Fn	  F59 function key
       key_f6			     kf6	k6	  F6 function key
       key_f60			     kf60	Fo	  F60 function key
       key_f61			     kf61	Fp	  F61 function key
       key_f62			     kf62	Fq	  F62 function key
       key_f63			     kf63	Fr	  F63 function key
       key_f7			     kf7	k7	  F7 function key
       key_f8			     kf8	k8	  F8 function key
       key_f9			     kf9	k9	  F9 function key
       key_find			     kfnd	@0	  find key
       key_help			     khlp	%1	  help key
       key_home			     khome	kh	  home key
       key_ic			     kich1	kI	  insert-character key
       key_il			     kil1	kA	  insert-line key
       key_left			     kcub1	kl	  left-arrow key
       key_ll			     kll	kH	  lower-left key (home
       key_mark			     kmrk	%2	  mark key
       key_message		     kmsg	%3	  message key
       key_move			     kmov	%4	  move key
       key_next			     knxt	%5	  next key
       key_npage		     knp	kN	  next-page key
       key_open			     kopn	%6	  open key
       key_options		     kopt	%7	  options key
       key_ppage		     kpp	kP	  previous-page	key
       key_previous		     kprv	%8	  previous key
       key_print		     kprt	%9	  print	key
       key_redo			     krdo	%0	  redo key
       key_reference		     kref	&1	  reference key
       key_refresh		     krfr	&2	  refresh key
       key_replace		     krpl	&3	  replace key
       key_restart		     krst	&4	  restart key
       key_resume		     kres	&5	  resume key
       key_right		     kcuf1	kr	  right-arrow key
       key_save			     ksav	&6	  save key
       key_sbeg			     kBEG	&9	  shifted begin	key
       key_scancel		     kCAN	&0	  shifted cancel key
       key_scommand		     kCMD	*1	  shifted command key
       key_scopy		     kCPY	*2	  shifted copy key
       key_screate		     kCRT	*3	  shifted create key
       key_sdc			     kDC	*4	  shifted delete-char-
							  acter	key
       key_sdl			     kDL	*5	  shifted delete-line
       key_select		     kslt	*6	  select key
       key_send			     kEND	*7	  shifted end key
       key_seol			     kEOL	*8	  shifted clear-to-
							  end-of-line key
       key_sexit		     kEXT	*9	  shifted exit key
       key_sf			     kind	kF	  scroll-forward key
       key_sfind		     kFND	*0	  shifted find key
       key_shelp		     kHLP	#1	  shifted help key
       key_shome		     kHOM	#2	  shifted home key
       key_sic			     kIC	#3	  shifted insert-char-
							  acter	key

       key_sleft		     kLFT	#4	  shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage		     kMSG	%a	  shifted message key
       key_smove		     kMOV	%b	  shifted move key
       key_snext		     kNXT	%c	  shifted next key
       key_soptions		     kOPT	%d	  shifted options key
       key_sprevious		     kPRV	%e	  shifted previous key
       key_sprint		     kPRT	%f	  shifted print	key
       key_sr			     kri	kR	  scroll-backward key
       key_sredo		     kRDO	%g	  shifted redo key
       key_sreplace		     kRPL	%h	  shifted replace key
       key_sright		     kRIT	%i	  shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume		     kRES	%j	  shifted resume key
       key_ssave		     kSAV	!1	  shifted save key
       key_ssuspend		     kSPD	!2	  shifted suspend key
       key_stab			     khts	kT	  set-tab key
       key_sundo		     kUND	!3	  shifted undo key
       key_suspend		     kspd	&7	  suspend key
       key_undo			     kund	&8	  undo key
       key_up			     kcuu1	ku	  up-arrow key
       keypad_local		     rmkx	ke	  leave	'key-
							  board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit		     smkx	ks	  enter	'key-
							  board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0			     lf0	l0	  label	on function
							  key f0 if not	f0
       lab_f1			     lf1	l1	  label	on function
							  key f1 if not	f1
       lab_f10			     lf10	la	  label	on function
							  key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2			     lf2	l2	  label	on function
							  key f2 if not	f2
       lab_f3			     lf3	l3	  label	on function
							  key f3 if not	f3
       lab_f4			     lf4	l4	  label	on function
							  key f4 if not	f4
       lab_f5			     lf5	l5	  label	on function
							  key f5 if not	f5
       lab_f6			     lf6	l6	  label	on function
							  key f6 if not	f6
       lab_f7			     lf7	l7	  label	on function
							  key f7 if not	f7
       lab_f8			     lf8	l8	  label	on function
							  key f8 if not	f8
       lab_f9			     lf9	l9	  label	on function
							  key f9 if not	f9
       label_format		     fln	Lf	  label	format
       label_off		     rmln	LF	  turn off soft	labels
       label_on			     smln	LO	  turn on soft labels
       meta_off			     rmm	mo	  turn off meta	mode
       meta_on			     smm	mm	  turn on meta mode
							  (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address	     mhpa	ZY	  Like column_address
							  in micro mode
       micro_down		     mcud1	ZZ	  Like cursor_down in
							  micro	mode
       micro_left		     mcub1	Za	  Like cursor_left in
							  micro	mode
       micro_right		     mcuf1	Zb	  Like cursor_right in
							  micro	mode
       micro_row_address	     mvpa	Zc	  Like row_address #1
							  in micro mode
       micro_up			     mcuu1	Zd	  Like cursor_up in
							  micro	mode
       newline			     nel	nw	  newline (behave like
							  cr followed by lf)

       order_of_pins		     porder	Ze	  Match	software bits
							  to print-head	pins
       orig_colors		     oc		oc	  Set all color	pairs
							  to the original ones
       orig_pair		     op		op	  Set default pair to
							  its original value
       pad_char			     pad	pc	  padding char
							  (instead of null)
       parm_dch			     dch	DC	  delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line		     dl		DL	  delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor		     cud	DO	  down #1 lines	(P*)
       parm_down_micro		     mcud	Zf	  Like parm_down_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_ich			     ich	IC	  insert #1 characters
       parm_index		     indn	SF	  scroll forward #1
							  lines	(P)
       parm_insert_line		     il		AL	  insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor		     cub	LE	  move #1 characters
							  to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro		     mcub	Zg	  Like parm_left_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor	     cuf	RI	  move #1 characters
							  to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro		     mcuf	Zh	  Like parm_right_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex		     rin	SR	  scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor		     cuu	UP	  up #1	lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro		     mcuu	Zi	  Like parm_up_cursor
							  in micro mode
       pkey_key			     pfkey	pk	  program function key
							  #1 to	type string #2
       pkey_local		     pfloc	pl	  program function key
							  #1 to	execute	string
       pkey_xmit		     pfx	px	  program function key
							  #1 to	transmit
							  string #2
       plab_norm		     pln	pn	  program label	#1 to
							  show string #2
       print_screen		     mc0	ps	  print	contents of
       prtr_non			     mc5p	pO	  turn on printer for
							  #1 bytes
       prtr_off			     mc4	pf	  turn off printer
       prtr_on			     mc5	po	  turn on printer
       pulse			     pulse	PU	  select pulse dialing
       quick_dial		     qdial	QD	  dial number #1 with-
							  out checking
       remove_clock		     rmclk	RC	  remove clock
       repeat_char		     rep	rp	  repeat char #1 #2
							  times	(P*)
       req_for_input		     rfi	RF	  send next input char
							  (for ptys)
       reset_1string		     rs1	r1	  reset	string
       reset_2string		     rs2	r2	  reset	string
       reset_3string		     rs3	r3	  reset	string
       reset_file		     rf		rf	  name of reset	file
       restore_cursor		     rc		rc	  restore cursor to
							  position of last
       row_address		     vpa	cv	  vertical position #1
							  absolute (P)
       save_cursor		     sc		sc	  save current cursor
							  position (P)

       scroll_forward		     ind	sf	  scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse		     ri		sr	  scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set		     scs	Zj	  Select character
							  set, #1
       set_attributes		     sgr	sa	  define video
							  attributes #1-#9
       set_background		     setb	Sb	  Set background color
       set_bottom_margin	     smgb	Zk	  Set bottom margin at
							  current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm	     smgbp	Zl	  Set bottom margin at
							  line #1 or (if smgtp
							  is not given)	#2
							  lines	from bottom
       set_clock		     sclk	SC	  set clock, #1	hrs #2
							  mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair		     scp	sp	  Set current color
							  pair to #1
       set_foreground		     setf	Sf	  Set foreground color
       set_left_margin		     smgl	ML	  set left soft	margin
							  at current col-
							  umn.	     See smgl.
							  (ML is not in	BSD
       set_left_margin_parm	     smglp	Zm	  Set left (right)
							  margin at column #1
       set_right_margin		     smgr	MR	  set right soft mar-
							  gin at current col-
       set_right_margin_parm	     smgrp	Zn	  Set right margin at
							  column #1
       set_tab			     hts	st	  set a	tab in every
							  row, current columns
       set_top_margin		     smgt	Zo	  Set top margin at
							  current line
       set_top_margin_parm	     smgtp	Zp	  Set top (bottom)
							  margin at row	#1
       set_window		     wind	wi	  current window is
							  lines	#1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image		     sbim	Zq	  Start	printing bit
							  image	graphics
       start_char_set_def	     scsd	Zr	  Start	character set
							  definition #1, with
							  #2 characters	in the
       stop_bit_image		     rbim	Zs	  Stop printing	bit
							  image	graphics
       stop_char_set_def	     rcsd	Zt	  End definition of
							  character set	#1
       subscript_characters	     subcs	Zu	  List of subscript-
							  able characters
       superscript_characters	     supcs	Zv	  List of superscript-
							  able characters
       tab			     ht		ta	  tab to next 8-space
							  hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr		     docr	Zw	  Printing any of
							  these	characters
							  causes CR
       to_status_line		     tsl	ts	  move to status line,
							  column #1
       tone			     tone	TO	  select touch tone
       underline_char		     uc		uc	  underline char and
							  move past it

       up_half_line		     hu		hu	  half a line up
       user0			     u0		u0	  User string #0
       user1			     u1		u1	  User string #1
       user2			     u2		u2	  User string #2
       user3			     u3		u3	  User string #3
       user4			     u4		u4	  User string #4
       user5			     u5		u5	  User string #5
       user6			     u6		u6	  User string #6
       user7			     u7		u7	  User string #7
       user8			     u8		u8	  User string #8
       user9			     u9		u9	  User string #9
       wait_tone		     wait	WA	  wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character		     xoffc	XF	  XOFF character
       xon_character		     xonc	XN	  XON character
       zero_motion		     zerom	Zx	  No motion for	subse-
							  quent	character

       The following string capabilities are present in	the SVr4.0 term	struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented	in the man page.

	       Variable		     Cap-	  TCap	       Description
		String		     name	  Code
       alt_scancode_esc		     scesa	  S8	    Alternate escape
							    for	scancode emu-
       bit_image_carriage_return     bicr	  Yv	    Move to beginning
							    of same row
       bit_image_newline	     binel	  Zz	    Move to next row
							    of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat		     birep	  Xy	    Repeat bit image
							    cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names		     csnm	  Zy	    Produce #1'th item
							    from list of char-
							    acter set names
       code_set_init		     csin	  ci	    Init sequence for
							    multiple codesets
       color_names		     colornm	  Yw	    Give name for
							    color #1
       define_bit_image_region	     defbi	  Yx	    Define rectan-
							    gualar bit image
       device_type		     devt	  dv	    Indicate lan-
							    guage/codeset sup-
       display_pc_char		     dispc	  S1	    Display PC charac-
							    ter	#1
       end_bit_image_region	     endbi	  Yy	    End	a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode	     smpch	  S2	    Enter PC character
							    display mode
       enter_scancode_mode	     smsc	  S4	    Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode	     rmpch	  S3	    Exit PC character
							    display mode
       exit_scancode_mode	     rmsc	  S5	    Exit PC scancode
       get_mouse		     getm	  Gm	    Curses should get
							    button events,
							    parameter #1 not
       key_mouse		     kmous	  Km	    Mouse event	has
       mouse_info		     minfo	  Mi	    Mouse status
       pc_term_options		     pctrm	  S6	    PC terminal

       pkey_plab		     pfxl	  xl	    Program function
							    key	#1 to type
							    string #2 and show
							    string #3
       req_mouse_pos		     reqmp	  RQ	    Request mouse
       scancode_escape		     scesc	  S7	    Escape for scan-
							    code emulation
       set0_des_seq		     s0ds	  s0	    Shift to codeset 0
							    (EUC set 0,	ASCII)
       set1_des_seq		     s1ds	  s1	    Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq		     s2ds	  s2	    Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq		     s3ds	  s3	    Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background		     setab	  AB	    Set	background
							    color to #1, using
							    ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground		     setaf	  AF	    Set	foreground
							    color to #1, using
							    ANSI escape
       set_color_band		     setcolor	  Yz	    Change to ribbon
							    color #1
       set_lr_margin		     smglr	  ML	    Set	both left and
							    right margins to
							    #1,	#2.  (ML is
							    not	in BSD term-
       set_page_length		     slines	  YZ	    Set	page length to
							    #1 lines
       set_tb_margin		     smgtb	  MT	    Sets both top and
							    bottom margins to
							    #1,	#2

	The XSI	Curses standard	added these hardcopy capabilities.  They  were
	used  in  some post-4.1	versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5
	and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names	for  them  are
	invented.   According to the XSI Curses	standard, they have no termcap
	names.	If your	compiled terminfo entries use these, they may  not  be
	binary-compatible with System V	terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

		Variable	     Cap-	 TCap	      Description
		 String		     name	 Code
	enter_horizontal_hl_mode     ehhlm	 Xh	  Enter	horizontal
							  highlight mode
	enter_left_hl_mode	     elhlm	 Xl	  Enter	left highlight
	enter_low_hl_mode	     elohlm	 Xo	  Enter	low highlight
	enter_right_hl_mode	     erhlm	 Xr	  Enter	right high-
							  light	mode
	enter_top_hl_mode	     ethlm	 Xt	  Enter	top highlight
	enter_vertical_hl_mode	     evhlm	 Xv	  Enter	vertical high-
							  light	mode
	set_a_attributes	     sgr1	 sA	  Define second	set of
							  video	attributes
	set_pglen_inch		     slength	 YI	  Set page length to
							  #1 hundredth of an
							  inch (some implemen-
							  tations use sL for

   User-Defined	Capabilities
       The preceding section listed the	predefined  capabilities.   They  deal
       with  some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly	never)
       produced.  Occasionally there are special features of  newer  terminals
       which  are awkward or impossible	to represent by	reusing	the predefined

       ncurses addresses this limitation by  allowing  user-defined  capabili-
       ties.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x option for this pur-
       pose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-defined.
       That  is,  if tic encounters a capability name which it does not	recog-
       nize, it	infers its type	(boolean, number or string)  from  the	syntax
       and   makes   an	  extended  table  entry  for  that  capability.   The
       use_extended_names function makes this information conditionally	avail-
       able  to	 applications.	 The ncurses library provides the data leaving
       most of the behavior to applications:

        User-defined	capability strings whose  name	begins	with  "k"  are
	   treated as function keys.

        The	types  (boolean,  number,  string)  determined	by  tic	can be
	   inferred by successful calls	on tigetflag, etc.

        If the capability name happens to be	two characters,	the capability
	   is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is	said to	be extensible because it does not use a	prede-
       fined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the capa-
       bilities	 defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule, user-defined
       capabilities intended for use by	termcap	applications should be limited
       to  booleans  and  numbers  to  avoid  running past the 1023 byte limit
       assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In particu-
       lar,  providing	extended  sets	of function keys (past the 60 numbered
       keys and	the handful of special named keys)  is	best  done  using  the
       longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard	terminal, is represen-
       tative of what a	terminfo entry for a modern terminal  typically	 looks

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
	       am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
	       colors#8, cols#80, it#8,	lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
	       bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m,	cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
	       cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D,	cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
	       cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
	       cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP,	dch1=\E[P,
	       dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
	       el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
	       ich=\E[%p1%[email protected], il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
	       indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
	       kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
	       mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
	       rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
	       rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
	       s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,	s3ds=\E+B,
	       setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
	       sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
	       smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
	       u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c,	vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries	may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space	at the
       beginning of each line except the first.	 Comments may be  included  on
       lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in terminfo are of three	types:

        Boolean capabilities	which indicate that the	terminal has some par-
	   ticular feature,

        numeric capabilities	giving the size	of the terminal	or the size of
	   particular delays, and

        string capabilities,	which give a sequence which  can  be  used  to
	   perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities	have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic	margins	(i.e., an automatic return  and	 line-
       feed  when the end of a line is reached)	is indicated by	the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.	 Numeric  capabilities
       are  followed  by  the  character  "#" and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number	of columns the terminal	has, gives the
       value  "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions	(e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,	 string	 valued	capabilities, such as el (clear	to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character	 code,	an  "=",  and  then  a
       string ending at	the next following ",".

       A number	of escape sequences are	provided in the	string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map	to  an
       ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x	for any	appropriate x, and the
       sequences \n \l \r \t \b	\f \s give a newline, line-feed, return,  tab,
       backspace, form-feed, and space.	 Other escapes include

        \^ for ^,

        \\ for \,

        \, for comma,

        \: for :,

        and \0 for null.

	   \0 will produce \200, which does not	terminate a string but behaves
	   as a	null character on most terminals, providing CS7	is  specified.
	   See stty(1).

	   The	reason	for  this quirk	is to maintain binary compatibility of
	   the compiled	terminfo files with other implementations,  e.g.,  the
	   SVr4	 systems,  which  document  this.  Compiled terminfo files use
	   null-terminated strings, with no  lengths.	Modifying  this	 would
	   require a new binary	format,	which would not	work with other	imple-

       Finally,	characters may be given	as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere  in	a  string  capability,
       enclosed	 in  $<..>  brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,	and padding characters
       are supplied by tputs to	provide	this delay.  The delay must be a  num-
       ber  with at most one decimal place of precision; it may	be followed by
       suffixes	"*" or "/" or both.  A "*" indicates that the padding required
       is  proportional	 to the	number of lines	affected by the	operation, and
       the amount given	is the per-affected-unit padding  required.   (In  the
       case  of	 insert	 character,  the  factor  is still the number of lines
       affected.)  Normally, padding is	advisory if the	 device	 has  the  xon
       capability;  it	is  used  for  cost  computation  but does not trigger
       delays.	A "/" suffix indicates	that  the  padding  is	mandatory  and
       forces  a delay of the given number of milliseconds even	on devices for
       which xon is present to indicate	flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.	 To  do	 this,
       put  a  period before the capability name.  For example,	see the	second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The ncurses library  searches  for  terminal  descriptions  in  several
       places.	 It  uses only the first description found.  The library has a
       compiled-in list	of places to search which can be overridden  by	 envi-
       ronment	variables.   Before  starting  to  search,  ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search	list.

        If the environment variable TERMINFO	is set,	it is  interpreted  as
	   the pathname	of a directory containing the compiled description you
	   are working on.  Only that directory	is searched.

        If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will	instead	look in	the  directory
	   $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

        Next,  if  the  environment	variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses
	   will	interpret the contents of that variable	as a  list  of	colon-
	   separated directories (or database files) to	be searched.

	   An  empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with
	   a colon, or contains	adacent	colons)	is interpreted as  the	system
	   location /usr/share/misc/terminfo.

        Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

	    a list of directories (@[email protected]),	and

	    the  system  terminfo  directory, /usr/share/misc/terminfo (the
	       compiled-in default).

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of	terminals.   The  most
       effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a	similar	 terminal  in  terminfo	 and  to  build	 up  a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check	that they are correct.	Be aware  that
       a  very	unusual	terminal may expose deficiencies in the	ability	of the
       terminfo	file to	describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code	of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document	it) a severe test is to	edit  a	 large	file  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from	the middle of the screen, then hit the
       "u" key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of	columns	 on each line for the terminal is given	by the
       cols numeric capability.	 If the	terminal is a CRT, then	the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by	the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of	the next  line	when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor	in  the	 home  position,  then
       this  is	 given	by the clear string capability.	 If the	terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position	when  a	 character  is	struck
       over)  then  it	should	have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing	terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies	to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give	this as	cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a	code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc)	give this as bel.

       If there	is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,	 codes
       to  move	 to the	right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should	not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would	 not normally use "cuf1= " because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important	point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo	 are  undefined	 at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs	should never attempt to	backspace around the left edge,	unless
       bw  is given, and never attempt to go up	locally	off the	top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll  text	 down,	a  program  goes to the	top left corner	of the
       screen and sends	the ri (reverse	index) string.	The strings ind	and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions	of  the	 scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as	ind and	ri except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many	lines.	They are also undefined	except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the	right edge  of
       the  screen when	text is	output,	but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left	edge is	if bw is given,	then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the	right edge of the previous row.	 If bw is  not	given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This	is useful for drawing a	box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.	 If the	terminal has switch selectable
       automatic  margins,  the	terminfo file usually assumes that this	is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a	command	which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of	the next line, that command can	be given as nel	(newline).  It
       does not	matter if the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if the terminal has no cr and	lf it may still	be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy	and "glass-tty"	termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33	teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
	       bel=^G, cols#72,	cr=^M, cud1=^J,	hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
	       am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
	       ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the	termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string  capability,	 with  printf-
       like escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address the cursor, the
       cup capability is given,	using two parameters: the row  and  column  to
       address	to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer	to the
       physical	screen visible to the user, not	to any unseen memory.)	If the
       terminal	 has  memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated
       by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and	special	% codes	to  manipulate
       it.   Typically	a  sequence  will  push	one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.	Print (e.g., "%d") is  a  spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop	their operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that	more complex operations	are  often  necessary,
       e.g., in	the sgr	string.

       The % encodings have the	following meanings:

       %%   outputs "%"

	    as	in  printf, flags are [-+#] and	space.	Use a ":" to allow the
	    next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-"	as  an

       %c   print pop()	like %c	in printf

       %s   print pop()	like %s	in printf

	    push i'th parameter

	    set	dynamic	variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get	dynamic	variable [a-z] and push	it

	    set	static variable	[a-z] to pop()

	    get	static variable	[a-z] and push it

	    The	 terms	"static"  and "dynamic"	are misleading.	 Historically,
	    these are simply two different sets	of variables, whose values are
	    not	reset between calls to tparm.  However,	that fact is not docu-
	    mented in other implementations.  Relying  on  it  will  adversely
	    impact portability to other	implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

	    integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
	    arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
	    bit	operations (AND, OR and	exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
	    logical operations:	push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
	    logical AND	and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
	    unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add	1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
	    This forms an if-then-else.	 The %e	elsepart is optional.  Usually
	    the	%? expr	part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t  pops  it
	    from  the  stack,  testing if it is	nonzero	(true).	 If it is zero
	    (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

	    It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol	68:
	    %? c1 %t b1	%e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3	%e c4 %t b4 %e %;

	    where ci are conditions, bi	are bodies.

	    Use	the -f option of tic or	infocmp	to see the  structure  of  if-
	    then-else's.  Some strings,	e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
	    written on one line.  The -f option	splits the string  into	 lines
	    with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations  are	in postfix form	with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is,	to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider	 the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and	column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note	that the order of  the
       rows  and  columns  is  inverted	 here, and that	the row	and column are
       printed	 as   two   digits.	Thus	its    cup    capability    is

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a  ^T,  with  the  row	and   column   simply	encoded	  in   binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".   Terminals	which  use  "%c"  need	to  be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and	to move	the cursor up one line on  the
       screen  (cuu1).	 This  is  necessary  because it is not	always safe to
       transmit	\n ^D and \r, as the system may	change or discard them.	  (The
       library	routines  dealing with terminfo	set tty	modes so that tabs are
       never expanded, so \t is	safe to	send.  This turns out to be  essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final	example	is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%'	'%+%c".	 After sending
       "\E=",  this  pushes  the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds	them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous	 values) and outputs that value	as a character.	 Then the same
       is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is  possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If  the	terminal has a fast way	to home	the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given	as home; similarly a fast  way
       of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up	with cuu1 from the home	position, but a	program	should
       never do	this itself (unless ll does) because it	can make no assumption
       about the effect	of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
       home  position is the same as addressing	to (0,0): to the top left cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP	termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given	as single  parameter  capabilities  hpa	 (horizontal  position
       absolute)  and  vpa  (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the	more general  two  parameter  sequence	(as  with  the
       hp2645)	and can	be used	in preference to cup.  If there	are parameter-
       ized local motions (e.g., move n	spaces to  the	right)	these  can  be
       given  as cud, cub, cuf,	and cuu	with a single parameter	indicating how
       many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful	if the	terminal  does
       not have	cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the	terminal  needs	to be in a special mode	when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter	and exit this mode can
       be  given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example,	from terminals
       like the	Concept	with more than one page	of memory.   If	 the  terminal
       has only	memory relative	cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the	termi-
       nal  for	cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the
       TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets	the command character to  be  the  one
       used  by	 terminfo.   If	the smcup sequence will	not restore the	screen
       after an	rmcup sequence is output (to the  state	 prior	to  outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area	Clears
       If  the	terminal can clear from	the current position to	the end	of the
       line, leaving the cursor	where it is, this should be given as  el.   If
       the  terminal  can  clear from the beginning of the line	to the current
       position	inclusive, leaving the cursor where  it	 is,  this  should  be
       given  as  el1.	If the terminal	can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should	be given as ed.	  Ed  is  only
       defined from the	first column of	a line.	 (Thus,	it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not	avail-

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If  the	terminal  can  open a new blank	line before the	line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this  is	 done  only  from  the
       first  position	of  a  line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can	delete the line	which  the  cursor  is
       on,  then this should be	given as dl1; this is done only	from the first
       position	on the line to be deleted.  Versions of	il1 and	dl1 which take
       a single	parameter and insert or	delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling	region (like  the  vt100)  the
       command	to  set	 this  can be described	with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom	lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this	command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using	csr on
       a properly chosen region; the sc	and rc (save and restore cursor)  com-
       mands  may  be  useful for ensuring that	your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the	cursor.	 (Note that  the  ncurses(3X)  library
       does   this   synthesis	 automatically,	  so   you  need  not  compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a	combi-
       nation  of  index  with the memory-lock feature found on	some terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen  can	also  be  done
       using  ri  or  ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even	on terminals with those	features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set	if each	scrolling win-
       dow  is	effectively a view port	on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for
       this capability,	create a scrolling region in the middle	of the screen,
       write  something	 to the	bottom line, move the cursor to	the top	of the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom  of  the	region	by  the	 ri re-appears,	then scrolling is non-
       destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that ind,  ri,  indn,  and
       rin  will  simulate destructive scrolling; their	documentation cautions
       you not to define csr unless this is true.  This	curses	implementation
       is more liberal and will	do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part  of  memory,
       which  all  commands  affect,  it  should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines  in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in	that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above,	then the da capability
       should be given;	if display memory  can	be  retained  below,  then  db
       should  be given.  These	indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up	from below or that scrolling back with ri  may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There  are  two	basic  kinds  of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be  described	using  terminfo.   The
       most  common insert/delete character operations affect only the charac-
       ters on the current line	and shift characters off the end of  the  line
       rigidly.	 Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks	on the screen,
       shifting	 upon  an  insert  or  delete  only to an untyped blank	on the
       screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the	screen
       and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc	  def"
       using local cursor motions (not	spaces)	 between  the  "abc"  and  the
       "def".	Then position the cursor before	the "abc" and put the terminal
       in insert mode.	If typing characters causes the	rest of	 the  line  to
       shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not	distinguish between blanks  and	 untyped  positions.   If  the
       "abc"  shifts over to the "def" which then move together	around the end
       of the current line and onto the	next as	you insert, you	have the  sec-
       ond  type  of terminal, and should give the capability in, which	stands
       for "insert null".

       While these are two logically  separate	attributes  (one  line	versus
       multi-line  insert  mode,  and  special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode	cannot be described  with  the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo	 can  describe	both  terminals	which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a	blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence	to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give	 as  ich1  any
       sequence	 needed	 to  be	 sent  just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a	true insert mode will not  give	 ich1;
       terminals  which	 send a	sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal	has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to	 ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
       requires	both to	be used	in combination.	 Accordingly, some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if both are present;	the symptom is doubled
       characters in an	update using insert.  This requirement	is  now	 rare;
       most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir	insert
       modes do	not require ich1 before	each character.	  Therefore,  the  new
       curses  actually	 assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1	as appropriate (but not	both).	If you have to write an	 entry
       to  be  used  under  new	curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a	number of milliseconds
       in  ip (a string	option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an	insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal	 needs	both  to be placed into	an "insert mode" and a special
       code to precede each inserted character,	then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
       can  be	given,	and  both  will	be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of	ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed	while  not  in	insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary	to move	around while in	insert mode to
       delete characters on the	same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your	terminal allows	motion while in	insert
       mode you	can give the capability	mir to	speed  up  inserting  in  this
       case.   Omitting	 mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode

       Finally,	 you  can  specify dch1	to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by	giving
       smdc  and  rmdc	to  enter  and exit delete mode	(any mode the terminal
       needs to	be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters	(equivalent  to	 outputting  n	blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal	has one	or more	kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display	form  as  standout  mode,  representing	a good,	high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format	for  highlighting  error  messages  and	 other
       attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video	alone.)	 The sequences	to  enter  and
       exit  standout  mode  are given as smso and rmso, respectively.	If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one	 or  even  two
       blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to	begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space	to  the	 right,	 such  as  the
       Microterm Mime, this can	be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to	enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or	extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)	 invis
       (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate	character  set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on	any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other	modes.

       If there	is a sequence to set arbitrary	combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given  as  sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or	nonzero, as the	corresponding attribute	is  on
       or  off.	 The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank,	protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands	exist.

       For example, the	DEC vt220 supports most	of the modes:

		   tparm parameter   attribute	  escape sequence

		   none		     none	  \E[0m
		   p1		     standout	  \E[0;1;7m
		   p2		     underline	  \E[0;4m
		   p3		     reverse	  \E[0;7m
		   p4		     blink	  \E[0;5m
		   p5		     dim	  not available
		   p6		     bold	  \E[0;1m
		   p7		     invis	  \E[0;8m
		   p8		     protect	  not used
		   p9		     altcharset	  ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin	each escape sequence by	turning	off any	existing modes,	 since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220	termi-
       nal  has	 a protect mode, though	it is not commonly used	in sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode	 also  is  different  in  that	it is either ^O	or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out-
       put when	either p1 or p3	is  true,  that	 is,  if  either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned	on.

       Writing out the above sequences,	along with their dependencies yields

		 sequence   when to output	terminfo translation

		 \E[0	    always		\E[0
		 ;1	    if p1 or p6		%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
		 ;4	    if p2		%?%p2%|%t;4%;
		 ;5	    if p4		%?%p4%|%t;5%;
		 ;7	    if p1 or p3		%?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
		 ;8	    if p7		%?%p7%|%t;8%;
		 m	    always		m
		 ^N or ^O   if p9 ^N, else ^O	%?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all	together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember	 that  if  you specify sgr, you	must also specify sgr0.	 Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr	being given if sgr0 is,	Not  all  ter-
       minfo  entries  necessarily have	an sgr string, however.	 Many terminfo
       entries are derived from	termcap	entries	which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to	adding an sgr string is	that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch	(xmc) deposit  special	"cook-
       ies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm rather	than having extra bits for each	character.  Some  ter-
       minals,	such  as  the  HP 2621,	automatically leave standout mode when
       they move to a new line or the cursor  is  addressed.   Programs	 using
       standout	 mode  should  exit  standout mode before moving the cursor or
       sending a newline, unless the msgr capability,  asserting  that	it  is
       safe to move in standout	mode, is present.

       If  the	terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash;  it  must
       not move	the cursor.

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal	when it	is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for	example, a non-blinking	underline into
       an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  If there	is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that  as	 civis.	 The capability	cnorm should be	given which undoes the
       effects of both of these	modes.

       If your terminal	correctly generates  underlined	 characters  (with  no
       special	codes  needed)	even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If  a  character	 overstriking  another
       leaves  both  characters	 on the	screen,	specify	the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable	with a blank, then this	should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the	terminal  has  a keypad	that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed,	this information can be	given.	Note that it is	 not  possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local	(this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP	2621 keys).  If	the keypad can be  set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as	smkx and rmkx.	Other-
       wise the	keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up  arrow,  down	arrow,
       and  home  keys	can  be	given as kcub1,	kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes  they  send  can  be given	as kf0,	kf1, ..., kf10.	 If these keys
       have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the  labels  can  be
       given as	lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by	certain	other special keys can be given:

        kll (home down),

        kbs (backspace),

        ktbc	(clear all tabs),

        kctab (clear	the tab	stop in	this column),

        kclr	(clear screen or erase key),

        kdch1 (delete character),

        kdl1	(delete	line),

        krmir (exit insert mode),

        kel (clear to end of	line),

        ked (clear to end of	screen),

        kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

        kil1	(insert	line),

        knp (next page),

        kpp (previous page),

        kind	(scroll	forward/down),

        kri (scroll backward/up),

        khts	(set a tab stop	in this	column).

       In  addition,  if  the  keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys,	the other five keys can	be given  as  ka1,  ka3,  kb2,
       kc1,  and  kc3.	 These	keys  are  useful when the effects of a	3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys	can be given as	pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function	key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to	program	it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in	a  terminal  dependent
       manner.	 The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey	causes
       pressing	the given key to be the	same as	 the  user  typing  the	 given
       string;	pfloc  causes  the  string  to	be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string	to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities	nlab, lw and lh	 define	 the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the	labels on and off, give	them in	smln and rmln.	smln  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs	and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
       tab  stop can be	given as ht (usually control I).  A "back-tab" command
       which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be given as cbt.  By
       convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are	being expanded
       by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs	should
       not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may not have
       the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has	 hardware  tabs	 which
       are  initially  set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the
       numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spaces  the  tabs
       are  set	 to.  This is normally used by the @[email protected] command to determine
       whether to set the mode for hardware tab	expansion, and whether to  set
       the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-
       volatile	memory,	the terminfo description  can  assume  that  they  are
       properly	set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3,	initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog,	the path name of a program to be run  to  ini-
       tialize	the  terminal, and if, the name	of a file containing long ini-
       tialization strings.  These strings are expected	to  set	 the  terminal
       into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the	terminal, by the init  option  of  the	@[email protected]
       program,	 each time the user logs in.  They will	be printed in the fol-
       lowing order:

	      run the program

	      output is1 is2

	      set the margins using
		     mgc, smgl and smgr

	      set tabs using
		     tbc and hts

	      print the	file

	      and finally
		     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with	is2.  Special terminal	modes  can  be
       set  up	without	duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in	is1 and	is3.

       A set of	sequences that does a harder  reset  from  a  totally  unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to	is1 , is2 , if
       and is3 respectively.  These strings are	output by the  reset  program,
       which is	used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally	placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if  they  produce  annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when	logging	in.  For exam-
       ple, the	command	to set the vt100 into 80-column	mode would normally be
       part  of	is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and	is not
       normally	needed since the terminal is  usually  already	in  80	column

       The  reset  program  writes  strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as	the init program, using	rs1, etc., instead of  is1,  etc.   If
       any  of	rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       reset program falls back	upon the corresponding initialization capabil-
       ity string.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a	tab stop in the	current	column
       of  every  row).	  If a more complex sequence is	needed to set the tabs
       than can	be described by	this, the sequence can be placed in is2	or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many  older  and	slower terminals do not	support	either XON/XOFF	or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy	terminals and some very	 archaic  CRTs
       (including,  for	example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that	is, it
       automatically  emits  ^S	 back  to  the host when its input buffers are
       close to	full), set xon.	 This capability suppresses  the  emission  of
       padding.	  You can also set it for memory-mapped	console	devices	effec-
       tively that do not have a  speed	 limit.	  Padding  information	should
       still be	included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but	actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below  the  value  of  pb.  If the entry	has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires	other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can	be  given as pad.  Only	the first character of the pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra "status line" which	is not	normally  used
       by  software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which	is cursor-addressable but  not
       part of the main	scrolling region on the	screen;	the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
       scrolling region	set up on initialization.  This	situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines	need special sequences to  access  the
       status  line.  These may	be expressed as	a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column	on the	status
       line.   The  capability fsl must	return to the main-screen cursor posi-
       tions before the	last tsl.  You may need	to embed the string values  of
       sc  (save  cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width	as  the	 width
       of  the	terminal.   If	this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,	 tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in	the status line.

       The  ncurses implementation does	not yet	use any	of these capabilities.
       They are	documented here	in case	they ever become important.

   Line	Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for	forms-drawing.
       Terminfo	 and  curses  build in support for the drawing characters sup-
       ported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T	4410v1	added.
       This alternate character	set may	be specified by	the acsc capability.

       Glyph			       ACS		  Ascii		 VT100
       Name			       Name		  Default	 Name
       UK pound	sign		       ACS_STERLING	  f		 }
       arrow pointing down	       ACS_DARROW	  v		 .
       arrow pointing left	       ACS_LARROW	  <		 ,
       arrow pointing right	       ACS_RARROW	  >		 +
       arrow pointing up	       ACS_UARROW	  ^		 -
       board of	squares		       ACS_BOARD	  #		 h
       bullet			       ACS_BULLET	  o		 ~
       checker board (stipple)	       ACS_CKBOARD	  :		 a
       degree symbol		       ACS_DEGREE	  \		 f
       diamond			       ACS_DIAMOND	  +		 `
       greater-than-or-equal-to	       ACS_GEQUAL	  >		 z
       greek pi			       ACS_PI		  *		 {
       horizontal line		       ACS_HLINE	  -		 q
       lantern symbol		       ACS_LANTERN	  #		 i
       large plus or crossover	       ACS_PLUS		  +		 n
       less-than-or-equal-to	       ACS_LEQUAL	  <		 y
       lower left corner	       ACS_LLCORNER	  +		 m
       lower right corner	       ACS_LRCORNER	  +		 j
       not-equal		       ACS_NEQUAL	  !		 |
       plus/minus		       ACS_PLMINUS	  #		 g
       scan line 1		       ACS_S1		  ~		 o
       scan line 3		       ACS_S3		  -		 p
       scan line 7		       ACS_S7		  -		 r
       scan line 9		       ACS_S9		  _		 s
       solid square block	       ACS_BLOCK	  #		 0
       tee pointing down	       ACS_TTEE		  +		 w
       tee pointing left	       ACS_RTEE		  +		 u
       tee pointing right	       ACS_LTEE		  +		 t
       tee pointing up		       ACS_BTEE		  +		 v
       upper left corner	       ACS_ULCORNER	  +		 l
       upper right corner	       ACS_URCORNER	  +		 k
       vertical	line		       ACS_VLINE	  |		 x

       The  best  way to define	a new device's graphics	set is to add a	column
       to a copy of this table for your	terminal, giving the  character	 which
       (when  emitted  between	smacs/rmacs  switches) will be rendered	as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence;	these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most  color  terminals  are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-like".  Tek-
       tronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N	colors (where  N  usu-
       ally  8),  and can set character-cell foreground	and background charac-
       ters independently, mixing them into  N * N  color-pairs.   On  HP-like
       terminals,  the	use must set each color	pair up	separately (foreground
       and background are not independently settable).	Up  to	M  color-pairs
       may be set up from 2*M different	colors.	 ANSI-compatible terminals are

       Some basic color	capabilities are independent of	the color method.  The
       numeric	capabilities  colors  and pairs	specify	the maximum numbers of
       colors and color-pairs that can be displayed  simultaneously.   The  op
       (original pair) string resets foreground	and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.	 The oc	string resets  all  colors  or
       color-pairs  to	their default values for the terminal.	Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent  background	 color	rather	than  the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability	bce.

       To change the current foreground	or background color  on	 a  Tektronix-
       type  terminal,	use  setaf  (set  ANSI foreground) and setab (set ANSI
       background) or setf (set	foreground) and	setb (set background).	 These
       take one	parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
       only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft	says that "If  the  terminal  supports
       ANSI  escape sequences to set background	and foreground,	they should be
       coded as	setaf and setab, respectively.	If the terminal	supports other
       escape sequences	to set background and foreground, they should be coded
       as setf and setb, respectively.	The vidputs() function and the refresh
       functions use setaf and setab if	they are defined."

       The  setaf/setab	and setf/setb capabilities take	a single numeric argu-
       ment each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined  as
       follows	(the  middle  column  is the symbolic #define available	in the
       header for the curses or	ncurses	libraries).  The terminal hardware  is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in	color space.

		    Color	#define	      Value	  RGB
		    black     COLOR_BLACK	0     0, 0, 0
		    red	      COLOR_RED		1     max,0,0
		    green     COLOR_GREEN	2     0,max,0
		    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	3     max,max,0
		    blue      COLOR_BLUE	4     0,0,max
		    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	5     max,0,max
		    cyan      COLOR_CYAN	6     0,max,max
		    white     COLOR_WHITE	7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb	historically correspond	to a different
       mapping,	i.e.,

		    Color	#define	      Value	  RGB
		    black     COLOR_BLACK	0     0, 0, 0
		    blue      COLOR_BLUE	1     0,0,max
		    green     COLOR_GREEN	2     0,max,0
		    cyan      COLOR_CYAN	3     0,max,max
		    red	      COLOR_RED		4     max,0,0
		    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	5     max,0,max
		    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	6     max,max,0
		    white     COLOR_WHITE	7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number	 parameter  to
       set which color pair is current.

       On  a  Tektronix-like  terminal,	 the  capability ccc may be present to
       indicate	that colors can	be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
       take  a	color  number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters which
       describe	the color.  These three	parameters  default  to	 being	inter-
       preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue)	values.	 If the	boolean	capability hls
       is present, they	 are  instead  as  HLS	(Hue,  Lightness,  Saturation)
       indices.	 The ranges are	terminal-dependent.

       On  an  HP-like	terminal,  initp  may give a capability	for changing a
       color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a  color-pair	number
       (0  to  max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first	background and
       then foreground colors.	These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
       (Hue, Lightness,	Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some	color terminals, colors	collide	with highlights.  You can reg-
       ister these collisions with the ncv capability.	This is	a bit-mask  of
       attributes  not to be used when colors are enabled.  The	correspondence
       with the	attributes understood by curses	is as follows:

			Attribute      Bit   Decimal   Set by
			A_STANDOUT     0     1	       sgr
			A_UNDERLINE    1     2	       sgr
			A_REVERSE      2     4	       sgr
			A_BLINK	       3     8	       sgr
			A_DIM	       4     16	       sgr
			A_BOLD	       5     32	       sgr
			A_INVIS	       6     64	       sgr
			A_PROTECT      7     128       sgr
			A_ALTCHARSET   8     256       sgr
			A_HORIZONTAL   9     512       sgr1
			A_LEFT	       10    1024      sgr1
			A_LOW	       11    2048      sgr1
			A_RIGHT	       12    4096      sgr1
			A_TOP	       13    8192      sgr1
			A_VERTICAL     14    16384     sgr1

			A_ITALIC       15    32768     sitm

       For example, on many IBM	PC consoles, the underline attribute  collides
       with  the  foreground  color  blue  and is not available	in color mode.
       These should have an ncv	capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does	nothing	with ncv, ncurses recognizes it	and  optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If  the	terminal requires other	than a null (zero) character as	a pad,
       then this can be	given as pad.  Only the	first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.	If the terminal	does not have a	pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC  variable;
       though  the  application	 may  set this value to	something other	than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has  no
       pad character.

       If  the terminal	can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line	down).	This is	primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and	subscripts on hard-copy	terminals.  If a hard-
       copy terminal can eject to the next page	(form feed), give this	as  ff
       (usually	control	L).

       If  there  is  a	 command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time transmitting	a large	number	of  identical  charac-
       ters)  this  can	 be  indicated with the	parameterized string rep.  The
       first parameter is the character	to be repeated and the second  is  the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)	is the
       same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025,  this can be indicated with cmdch.	 A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character  is	 given
       in  the	cmdch  capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be	searched for a
       CC  variable,  and if found, all	occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal	descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind  of	 known
       terminal,  such	as  switch, dialup, patch, and network,	should include
       the gn (generic)	capability so that programs can	complain that they  do
       not  know how to	talk to	the terminal.  (This capability	does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions	for which  the	escape	sequences  are

       If the terminal has a "meta key"	which acts as a	shift key, setting the
       8th bit of any character	transmitted, this fact can be  indicated  with
       km.   Otherwise,	software will assume that the 8th bit is parity	and it
       will usually be cleared.	 If strings exist to turn this "meta mode"  on
       and off,	they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more	lines of memory	than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number	of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A	 value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed,	but that there
       is still	more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the	UNIX virtual  terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media  copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected	to the
       terminal	can be given as	mc0: print the contents	of  the	 screen,  mc4:
       turn  off  the printer, and mc5:	turn on	the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the	 printer.   It
       is  undefined whether the text is also displayed	on the terminal	screen
       when the	printer	is on.	A variation  mc5p  takes  one  parameter,  and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the	param-
       eter, then turns	the printer off.  The parameter	should not exceed 255.
       All  text,  including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while
       an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and	Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be  displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals  which	 ignore	a line-feed immediately	after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should	indicate xenl.

       If el is	required to get	rid of standout	 (instead  of  merely  writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be	given.

       Teleray terminals, where	tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the  variable  indicating
       this  is	 now  "dest_tabs_magic_smso";  in  older versions, it was tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of	a "magic cookie", that to erase	stand-
       out mode	it is instead necessary	to use delete and  insert  line.   The
       ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the	escape
       or control C characters,	has xsb, indicating that the f1	 key  is  used
       for  escape  and	 f2  for control C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem,	depending on the ROM.)	Note that in older terminfo  versions,
       this  capability	was called "beehive_glitch"; it	is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other specific terminal problems	may be corrected by adding more	 capa-
       bilities	of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant)	can be
       defined as being	just like the other (the  base)	 with  certain	excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the	variant, the string capability use can
       be given	with the name of the base terminal.   The  capabilities	 given
       before  use override those in the base type named by use.  If there are
       multiple	use capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.  That  is,
       the  rightmost  use  reference  is processed first, then	the one	to its
       left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the  entry	 over-
       ride those brought in by	use references.

       A capability can	be canceled by placing [email protected] to the left of the use ref-
       erence that imports it, where xx	is the capability.  For	 example,  the

	      2621-nl, [email protected], [email protected], use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the	smkx or	rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels  when  in	 visual	 mode.
       This  is	 useful	 for  different	modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be	a problem; to date,  no	 entry
       has  even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.	Unfor-
       tunately, the termcap translations are much more	strictly  limited  (to
       1023  bytes),  thus  termcap  translations of long terminfo entries can
       cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD	and older versions of tgetent()	 instruct  the
       user  to	 allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the  maximum
       safe  length  for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what
       the application and the termcap library being used does,	and  where  in
       the  termcap file the terminal type that	tgetent() is searching for is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find  an
       entry that's longer than	1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application	programs  allocate  more  than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others	do not.

       Each  termcap  entry has	two important sizes associated with it:	before
       "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability  that
       tacks on	another	termcap	entry to the end of the	current	one, to	add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The  "before tc expansion" length is the	most important one, because it
       affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is  the
       length  of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus	the backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some term-
       cap  libraries strip off	the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).
       Now suppose:

        a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

        and the application has only	allocated a 1k buffer,

        and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU)	 reads
	   the	whole entry into the buffer, no	matter what its	length,	to see
	   if it is the	entry it wants,

        and tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either  is  the
	   long	 entry,	 appears  in the termcap file after the	long entry, or
	   does	not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent() has to	search
	   the whole termcap file).

       Then  tgetent()	will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably
       core dump the program.  Programs	like telnet are	particularly  vulnera-
       ble;  modern telnets pass along values like the terminal	type automati-
       cally.  The results are almost as undesirable with a  termcap  library,
       like  SunOS  4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it
       reads an	overly long termcap entry.  If	a  termcap  library  truncates
       long  entries,  like  OSF/1  3.0,  it  is immune	to dying here but will
       return incorrect	data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion"	length will  have  a  similar  effect  to  the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM	to that	terminal type,
       since tgetent() only does "tc" expansion	once it	is found the  terminal
       type it was looking for,	not while searching.

       In  summary,  a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can	cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and	applications,  a  core
       dump,  warnings,	or incorrect operation.	 If it is too long even	before
       "tc" expansion, it will have this effect	even for users of  some	 other
       terminal	 types	and  users whose TERM variable does not	have a termcap

       When in -C (translate to	termcap) mode, the ncurses  implementation  of
       tic(1M)	issues	warning	 messages  when	the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation is too long.	 The -c	(check)	option	also  checks  resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It  is  not  wise  to  count  on	portability of binary terminfo entries
       between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem is  that	there  are  at
       least  two  versions  of	 terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX)	which diverged
       from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added  extension  capabili-
       ties  to	the string table that (in the binary format) collide with Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.

       Searching  for  terminal	 descriptions  in  $HOME/.terminfo  and	  TER-
       MINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some  SVr4  curses  implementations,  and  all previous to SVr4,	do not
       interpret the %A	and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not	specify	whether	msgr licenses  movement	 while	in  an
       alternate-character-set	mode  (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters	that  do  not  trigger	local  motions).   The
       ncurses	implementation	ignores	 msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This	raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite	inter-
       pretation  may  need  terminfo  entries	made  for ncurses to have msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and	insert-character modes
       in  a  slightly	non-standard way to get	better update efficiency.  See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock  and  display_clock  are  not
       documented  in  SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.	 They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the	kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to	inter-
       pret  it	 as  KEY_MOUSE,	 for use by terminals and emulators like xterm
       that  can  return  mouse-tracking  information  in  the	keyboard-input

       X/Open  Curses  does  not  mention italics.  Portable applications must
       assume that  numeric  capabilities  are	signed	16-bit	values.	  This
       includes	 the  no_color_video  (ncv)  capability.  The 32768 mask value
       used for	italics	with ncv can be	confused with an absent	 or  cancelled
       ncv.   If  italics  should work with colors, then the ncv value must be
       specified, even if it is	zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo  and  curses  support  different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different	exten-
       sion sets.  Here	is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4	capabilities.

       SGI -- Supports the SVr4	set, adds  one	undocumented  extended	string
       capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabili-
       ties.  The booleans end with xon_xoff;  the  numerics  with  width_sta-
       tus_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX   --  Supports  the  SVr1	subset,	 plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
       num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function  keys  11  through
       63,  plus  plab_norm,  label_on,	 and label_off,	plus some incompatible
       extensions in the string	table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1	subset,	plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       a number	of incompatible	string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the	SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

				files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1M),	  infocmp(1M),	curses(3X),  printf(3),	 term(5).   term_vari-

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel	Curtis.

Command Section