Man

Command Section
SCREEN(1)							     SCREEN(1)

NAME
       screen -	screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal	emulation

SYNOPSIS
       screen [	-options ] [ cmd [ args	] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

DESCRIPTION
       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).	  Each
       virtual terminal	provides the functions of a DEC	VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from	the ISO	6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple	character sets).  There	is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows	moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a	 shell	in  it
       (or  the	 specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any	time, you  can
       create new (full-screen)	windows	with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list	of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on	and off, copy-and-paste	text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run	their  programs	completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue	to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and	even when the whole screen session is detached from the	user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained	it.  If	this window was	in the foreground, the
       display switches	to the previous	 window;  if  none  are	 left,	screen
       exits.  Shells  usually	distinguish  between running as	login-shell or
       sub-shell.  Screen runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise  (See
       "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception	to this	is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate	 a  command  to	 the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a	from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.	The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like,	though they are	always
       two characters in length.

       Screen  does  not  understand the prefix	"C-" to	mean control, although
       this notation is	used in	this manual for	readability.  Please  use  the
       caret  notation ("^A" instead of	"C-a") as arguments to e.g. the	escape
       command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out  control  charac-
       ters in caret notation.

       The  standard way to create a new window	is to type "C-a	c".  This cre-
       ates a new window running a shell and switches to that  window  immedi-
       ately,  regardless  of  the state of the	process	running	in the current
       window.	Similarly, you can create a new	window with a  custom  command
       in  it  by  first binding the command to	a keystroke (in	your .screenrc
       file or at the "C-a :" command line) and	then using it  just  like  the
       "C-a  c"	command.  In addition, new windows can be created by running a
       command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.	This will  not
       run  another  copy  of screen, but will instead supply the command name
       and its arguments to the	window manager (specified in the $STY environ-
       ment  variable)	who  will  use it to create the	new window.  The above
       example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch	to its
       window. - Note that you cannot transport	environment variables from the
       invoking	shell to the application (emacs	in this	case), because	it  is
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If  "/etc/utmp"	is  writable  by screen, an appropriate	record will be
       written to this file for	each window, and removed when  the  window  is
       terminated.   This  is useful for working with "talk", "script",	"shut-
       down", "rsend", "sccs" and other	similar	programs  that	use  the  utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen	is active on your ter-
       minal, the terminal's own record	is removed from	 the  utmp  file.  See
       also "C-a L".

GETTING	STARTED
       Before  you  begin to use screen	you'll need to make sure you have cor-
       rectly selected your terminal type, just	as you	would  for  any	 other
       termcap/terminfo	program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing  a  lot  more
       reading,	 you should remember this one command:	"C-a ?".  Typing these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with	 the  contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal	is a "true" auto-margin	terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on	the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider	 using a version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic
       margins turned off. This	will ensure an accurate	and optimal update  of
       the  screen  in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the	 VT100
       style  type  and	 perfectly  suited for screen.	If all you've got is a
       "true" auto-margin terminal screen will	be  content  to	 use  it,  but
       updating	 a  character put into the last	position on the	screen may not
       be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is	moved  into  a
       safe position in	some other way.	This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal	with insert-character capability.

COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
       Screen has the following	command-line options:

       -a   include all	capabilities (with some	minor exceptions) in each win-
	    dow's  termcap, even if screen must	redraw parts of	the display in
	    order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the  current	termi-
	    nal.   By  default,	 screen	 tries to restore its old window sizes
	    when attaching to resizable	terminals  (those  with	 "WS"  in  its
	    description, e.g. suncmd or	some xterm).

       -c file
	    override  the default configuration	file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to
	    file.

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
	    does not start screen, but detaches	the elsewhere  running	screen
	    session.  It  has  the same	effect as typing "C-a d" from screen's
	    controlling	terminal. -D is	the equivalent	to  the	 power	detach
	    key.   If  no  session can be detached, this option	is ignored. In
	    combination	with the -r/-R option more  powerful  effects  can  be
	    achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach	a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach	 a  session  and if necessary detach or	even create it
	       first.

       -d -RR  Reattach	a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
	       the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach	 a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely
	       first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
	       ning,  then  reattach.  If necessary detach and logout remotely
	       first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the	 user.
	       This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note:  It  is  always a good idea to check the status of your ses-
	    sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
	    specifies the command character to be x and	the character generat-
	    ing	a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
	    character).	 The default is	"C-a" and `a', which can be  specified
	    as	"-e^Aa".  When creating	a screen session, this option sets the
	    default command character. In a multiuser session all users	 added
	    will  start	off with this command character. But when attaching to
	    an already running session,	this option changes only  the  command
	    character  of  the	attaching  user.  This option is equivalent to
	    either the commands	"defescape" or "escape"	respectively.

       -f, -fn,	and -fa
	    turns flow-control on, off,	or "automatic switching	 mode".	  This
	    can	also be	defined	through	the "defflow" .screenrc	command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause	 the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the dis-
	    play immediately when  flow-control	 is  on.   See	the  "defflow"
	    .screenrc command for details.  The	use of this option is discour-
	    aged.

       -l and -ln
	    turns login	mode on	or off (for  /etc/utmp	updating).   This  can
	    also be defined through the	"deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
	    does  not  start screen, but prints	a list of pid.tty.host strings
	    identifying	your screen sessions.  Sessions	marked `detached'  can
	    be	resumed	 with "screen -r". Those marked	`attached' are running
	    and	have a controlling terminal. If	the session runs in  multiuser
	    mode,  it  is  marked  `multi'.  Sessions  marked as `unreachable'
	    either live	on a different host or	are  `dead'.   An  unreachable
	    session  is	considered dead, when its name matches either the name
	    of the local host, or the specified	parameter, if any.  See	the -r
	    flag  for a	description how	to construct matches.  Sessions	marked
	    as `dead' should be	thoroughly checked and removed.	 Ask your sys-
	    tem	 administrator	if  you	are not	sure. Remove sessions with the
	    -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the  windows.

       -Logfile	file
	    By	default	logfile	name is	"screenlog.0". You can set new logfile
	    name with the "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen  to  ignore  the  $STY  environment  variable.  With
	    "screen  -m"  creation  of	a  new session is enforced, regardless
	    whether screen is called from within  another  screen  session  or
	    not.  This	flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'
	    option:

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode.	This creates a new session but
	       doesn't	attach	to  it.	 This  is  useful  for	system startup
	       scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts	screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
	       new process. The	command	exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a	more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
	    true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
	    `LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP'
	    in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
	    Preselect a	window.	This is	useful when you	want to	reattach to  a
	    specific  window or	you want to send a command via the "-X"	option
	    to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
	    the	 blank	window.	 As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
	    the	windowlist on the blank	window,	while a	"+" will create	a  new
	    window.  The  command will not be executed if the specified	window
	    could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination	with "-ls" the
	    exit  value	 is  as	 follows: 9 indicates a	directory without ses-
	    sions. 10 indicates	a directory with running  but  not  attachable
	    sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1	(or more) usable sessions.  In
	    combination	with "-r" the exit value is as follows:	 10  indicates
	    that  there	 is  no	session	to resume. 12 (or more)	indicates that
	    there are 2	(or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
	    which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
	    flag, e.g.	"screen	 -Q  windows".	The  commands  will  send  the
	    response  to  the  stdout of the querying process. If there	was an
	    error in the command, then the querying process will exit  with  a
	    non-zero status.

	    The	commands that can be queried now are:
	     echo
	     info
	     lastmsg
	     number
	     select
	     time
	     title
	     windows

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
	    resumes  a detached	screen session.	 No other options (except com-
	    binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional	prefix
	    of	[pid.]tty.host	may  be	needed to distinguish between multiple
	    detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
	    another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
	    indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another	user's
	    directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes  screen  only  when	 it's unambiguous which	one to attach,
	    usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise	 lists	avail-
	    able  sessions.   -RR attempts to resume the first detached	screen
	    session it finds.  If successful, all other	 command-line  options
	    are	 ignored.  If no detached session exists, starts a new session
	    using the specified	options, just as if -R had not been specified.
	    The	 option	 is  set  by default if	screen is run as a login-shell
	    (actually screen uses "-xRR" in that case).	 For combinations with
	    the	-d/-D option see there.

       -s program
	    sets  the  default	shell to the program specified,	instead	of the
	    value in the environment variable  $SHELL  (or  "/bin/sh"  if  not
	    defined).	This can also be defined through the "shell" .screenrc
	    command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
	    When creating a new	session, this option can be used to specify  a
	    meaningful	name for the session. This name	identifies the session
	    for	"screen	-list" and "screen -r"	actions.  It  substitutes  the
	    default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
	    sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or	specified pro-
	    gram.  See also the	"shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
	    Set	the $TERM environment variable using  the  specified  term  as
	    opposed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run	 screen	in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen	that your ter-
	    minal sends	and understands	UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
	    the	default	encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does  the  same  as	 "screen  -ls",	but removes destroyed sessions
	    instead of marking them as `dead'.	An unreachable session is con-
	    sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
	    host, or the explicitly given parameter, if	any.  See the -r  flag
	    for	a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to	a  not	detached screen	session. (Multi	display	mode).
	    Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
	    multiple screens, loops are	not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You may
	    use	the -S option to specify the screen session if you  have  sev-
	    eral  screen  sessions running. You	can use	the -d or -r option to
	    tell screen	to look	only for attached or detached screen sessions.
	    Note  that	this  command  doesn't work if the session is password
	    protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

DEFAULT	KEY BINDINGS
       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience,	all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as "C-a C-c" can	be used	to create a window.  See  section  "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The  following table shows the default key bindings. The	trailiing com-
       mas in boxes with multiple keystroke entries are	separators,  not  part
       of the bindings.

       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a '		 | (select)	   | Prompt for	a window |
       |		 |		   | name or  number  to |
       |		 |		   | switch to.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a "		 | (windowlist -b) | Present  a	 list of |
       |		 |		   | all   windows   for |
       |		 |		   | selection.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a digit	 | (select 0-9)	   | Switch   to  window |
       |		 |		   | number 0 -	9	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a -		 | (select -)	   | Switch  to	  window |
       |		 |		   | number 0 -	9, or to |
       |		 |		   | the blank window.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a tab		 | (focus)	   | Switch  the   input |
       |		 |		   | focus  to	the next |
       |		 |		   | region.   See  also |
       |		 |		   | split,	 remove, |
       |		 |		   | only.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a C-a		 | (other)	   | Toggle to the  win- |
       |		 |		   | dow  displayed pre- |
       |		 |		   | viously.  Note that |
       |		 |		   | this	 binding |
       |		 |		   | defaults	to   the |
       |		 |		   | command   character |
       |		 |		   | typed twice, unless |
       |		 |		   | overridden.     For |
       |		 |		   | instance,	if   you |
       |		 |		   | use    the	  option |
       |		 |		   | "-e]x",  this  com- |
       |		 |		   | mand  becomes "]]". |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a a		 | (meta)	   | Send  the	 command |
       |		 |		   | character	(C-a) to |
       |		 |		   | window. See  escape |
       |		 |		   | command.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a A		 | (title)	   | Allow  the	 user to |
       |		 |		   | enter  a  name  for |
       |		 |		   | the current window. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a b,		 | (break)	   | Send  a  break   to |
       |C-a C-b		 |		   | window.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a B		 | (pow_break)	   | Reopen the	terminal |
       |		 |		   | line  and	send   a |
       |		 |		   | break.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a c,		 | (screen)	   | Create a new window |
       |C-a C-c		 |		   | with  a  shell  and |
       |		 |		   | switch to that win- |
       |		 |		   | dow.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a C		 | (clear)	   | Clear the screen.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a d,		 | (detach)	   | Detach screen  from |
       |C-a C-d		 |		   | this terminal.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a D D		 | (pow_detach)	   | Detach  and logout. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a f,		 | (flow)	   | Toggle flow on, off |
       |C-a C-f		 |		   | or	auto.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a F		 | (fit)	   | Resize  the  window |
       |		 |		   | to	  the	 current |
       |		 |		   | region size.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a C-g		 | (vbell)	   | Toggles	screen's |
       |		 |		   | visual bell mode.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a h		 | (hardcopy)	   | Write a hardcopy of |
       |		 |		   | the  current window |
       |		 |		   | to	the file  "hard- |
       |		 |		   | copy.n".		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a H		 | (log)	   | Begins/ends logging |
       |		 |		   | of	the current win- |
       |		 |		   | dow   to  the  file |
       |		 |		   | "screenlog.n".	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a i,		 | (info)	   | Show   info   about |
       |C-a C-i		 |		   | this window.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a k,		 | (kill)	   | Destroy	 current |
       |C-a C-k		 |		   | window.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a l,		 | (redisplay)	   | Fully refresh  cur- |
       |C-a C-l		 |		   | rent window.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a L		 | (login)	   | Toggle this windows |
       |		 |		   | login slot.  Avail- |
       |		 |		   | able only if screen |
       |		 |		   | is	 configured   to |
       |		 |		   | update   the   utmp |
       |		 |		   | database.	 T{  C-a |
       |		 |		   | m,			 |
       |		 |		   | C-a C-m		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a M		 | (monitor)	   | Toggles  monitoring |
       |		 |		   | of	the current win- |
       |		 |		   | dow.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a space,	 | (next)	   | Switch  to	the next |
       |C-a n,		 |		   | window.		 |
       |C-a C-n		 |		   |			 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a N		 | (number)	   | Show   the	  number |
       |		 |		   | (and  title) of the |
       |		 |		   | current window.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a backspace,	 | (prev)	   | Switch to the  pre- |
       |C-a C-h,	 |		   | vious window (oppo- |
       |C-a p,		 |		   | site of C-a n).	 |
       |C-a C-p		 |		   |			 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a q,		 | (xon)	   | Send a control-q to |
       |C-a C-q		 |		   | the current window. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a Q		 | (only)	   | Delete all	 regions |
       |		 |		   | but   the	 current |
       |		 |		   | one.    See    also |
       |		 |		   | split,	 remove, |
       |		 |		   | focus.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a r,		 | (wrap)	   | Toggle the	 current |
       |C-a C-r		 |		   | window's  line-wrap |
       |		 |		   | setting  (turn  the |
       |		 |		   | current	window's |
       |		 |		   | automatic	 margins |
       |		 |		   | on	and off).	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a s,		 | (xoff)	   | Send a control-s to |
       |C-a C-s;	 |		   | the current window. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a S		 | (split)	   | Split  the	 current |
       |		 |		   | region horizontally |
       |		 |		   | into  two new ones. |
       |		 |		   | See   also	   only, |
       |		 |		   | remove, focus.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a t,		 | (time)	   | Show  system infor- |
       |C-a C-t		 |		   | mation.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a v		 | (version)	   | Display the version |
       |		 |		   | and     compilation |
       |		 |		   | date.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a C-v		 | (digraph)	   | Enter digraph.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a w,		 | (windows)	   | Show a list of win- |
       |C-a C-w		 |		   | dow.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a W		 | (width)	   | Toggle  80/132 col- |
       |		 |		   | umns.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a x or C-a C-x | (lockscreen)	   | Lock this terminal. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a X		 | (remove)	   | Kill   the	 current |
       |		 |		   | region.   See  also |
       |		 |		   | split, only, focus. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a z,		 | (suspend)	   | Suspend	 screen. |
       |C-a C-z		 |		   | Your   system  must |
       |		 |		   | support   BSD-style |
       |		 |		   | job-control.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a Z		 | (reset)	   | Reset  the	 virtual |
       |		 |		   | terminal	to   its |
       |		 |		   | "power-on"	 values. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a .		 | (dumptermcap)   | Write out a ".term- |
       |		 |		   | cap" file.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a ?		 | (help)	   | Show  key bindings. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a \		 | (quit)	   | Kill  all	 windows |
       |		 |		   | and       terminate |
       |		 |		   | screen.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a :		 | (colon)	   | Enter command  line |
       |		 |		   | mode.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a [,		 | (copy)	   | Enter  copy/scroll- |
       |C-a C-[,	 |		   | back mode.		 |
       |C-a esc		 |		   |			 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a C-],	 | (paste .)	   | Write the	contents |
       |C-a ]		 |		   | of	the paste buffer |
       |		 |		   | to	the stdin  queue |
       |		 |		   | of	the current win- |
       |		 |		   | dow.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a {,		 | (history)	   | Copy  and	paste  a |
       |C-a }		 |		   | previous  (command) |
       |		 |		   | line.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a >		 | (writebuf)	   | Write paste  buffer |
       |		 |		   | to	a file.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a <		 | (readbuf)	   | Reads  the	 screen- |
       |		 |		   | exchange file  into |
       |		 |		   | the paste buffer.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a =		 | (removebuf)	   | Removes   the  file |
       |		 |		   | used by C-a  <  and |
       |		 |		   | C-a >.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a ,		 | (license)	   | Shows  where screen |
       |		 |		   | comes  from,  where |
       |		 |		   | it	 went to and why |
       |		 |		   | you can use it.	 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a _		 | (silence)	   | Start/stop	monitor- |
       |		 |		   | ing   the	 current |
       |		 |		   | window for	inactiv- |
       |		 |		   | ity.		 |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a |		 | (split -v)	   | Split  the	 current |
       |		 |		   | region   vertically |
       |		 |		   | into  two new ones. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+
       |C-a *		 | (displays)	   | Show a  listing  of |
       |		 |		   | all       currently |
       |		 |		   | attached  displays. |
       +-----------------+-----------------+---------------------+

CUSTOMIZATION
       The  "socket  directory"	 defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to  /usr/local/screens  chosen  at  compile-
       time. If	screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator	should
       compile screen with an adequate (not NFS	mounted) socket	directory.  If
       screen  is  not	running	setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the	environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/usr/local/etc/screenrc"	 and  ".screenrc"  in  the user's home
       directory. These	are the	"programmer's defaults"	that can be overridden
       in the following	ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the environment variable	$SYSSCREENRC (this  override  feature  may  be
       disabled	 at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched
       in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The	command	line option  -c	 takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands	 in  these  files  are	used to	set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one	or more	windows	at the	begin-
       ning  of	 your  screen session.	Commands are listed one	per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and	 may  be surrounded by single or double	quotes.	 A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
       ligible	lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous	screen
       versions, as now	the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'	if  no
       variable	 substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis-
       tribution:  "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a	number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the	 command  mode
       type  `C-a  :'.	Note  that commands starting with "def"	change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames	[crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen	session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users.	This command enables to	attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.	 To add	a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg'	command	below.	If an optional second parameter	 is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named	user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user	mode only.

       aclchg usernames	permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits	list

       Change permissions for a	comma separated	list of	users. Permission bits
       are  represented	 as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing	`+' grants the permis-
       sion, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands	and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial list `#' refers to all windows, `?'	to all commands. if  usernames
       consists	of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A  command  can	be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The
       user can	type input to a	window when he has its	`w'  bit  set  and  no
       other  user  obtains  a writelock for this window.  Other bits are cur-
       rently ignored.	To withdraw the	writelock from another user in	window
       2: `aclchg username -w+w	2'.  To	allow read-only	access to the session:
       `aclchg username	-w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known  to	screen
       he can attach to	the session and	(per default) has full permissions for
       all command and windows.	Execution permission  for  the	acl  commands,
       `at'  and  others  should  also	be  removed or the user	may be able to
       regain write permission.	 Rights	of the special username	nobody	cannot
       be  changed  (see the "su" command).  `Chacl' is	a synonym to `aclchg'.
       Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a	user from screen's access control list.	If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot	attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access	rights.	 The  name  of
       the group is the	username of the	group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits	the permissions	that are granted to  the  group	 leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails	an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A	user is	removed	from  all  groups  the	special	 value
       "none"  is  used	for groupname.	If the second parameter	is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask	[[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[	users ]	+bits |	[ users	] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated  by	 the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no,	one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no	users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known  users  is	 assumed.   Bits is any	combination of
       access control bits allowed defined with	the "aclchg" command. The spe-
       cial  username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will
       be granted to any window	initially.  The	special	username  "??"	prede-
       fines  the  access that not yet known users are granted to any command.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity	message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that	is being moni-
       tored, screen displays a	notification in	the message line.  The notifi-
       cation  message	can  be	re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by	the number of the win-
       dow  in	which  activity	 has  occurred,	and each occurrence of `^G' is
       replaced	by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

			'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring  is  off	for all	windows	by default, but	can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is	 refreshed  on	window
       change.	 This  affects	all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored	with "allpartial off".	This is	a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set	to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in	virtual	termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ^a| ]

       Execute a command at other displays  or	windows	 as  if	 it  had  been
       entered there.  "At" changes the	context	(the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will	be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then	identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The	command	is executed once for each dis-
       play of the selected user(s). If	the first parameter  is	 of  the  form
       `identifier%'  identifier  is  matched  against	displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'  may
       be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a	`#' or nothing
       appended	it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all	users,
       displays	or windows because a prefix-match is performed.	Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe	what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,	 not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected	display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at"	command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
       dows (like "other") may be called again.	In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated	for each attached display. Beware, when	issuing	toggle
       commands	like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
       display	is associated with the target windows.	These commands may not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib	[attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can	be used	to highlight attributes	by changing the	 color
       of  the	text.  If  the	attribute  attrib  is  in  use,	 the specified
       attribute/color modifier	is also	applied. If no modifier	is given,  the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES"	chapter	for the	syntax
       of the modifier.	Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"	stands
       for  high-intensity  foreground	color and "I" for high-intensity back-
       ground color.

       Examples:

	      attrcolor	b "R"

       Change the color	to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor	u "-u b"

       Use blue	text instead of	underline.

	      attrcolor	b ".I"

       Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most	 terminal  emulators  do  this
       already.

	      attrcolor	i "+b"

       Make bright colored text	also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your	running	programs until they are	resumed	with a screen -r  com-
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate	screen and all
       the processes it	contains. Autodetach is	on by default.

       autonuke	on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke	all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick	id lifespan autorefresh	cmd args^a|

       backtick	id

       Program	the  backtick command with the numerical id id.	 The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is	the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a	 corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.	 The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the	speci-
       fied  number  of	seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-
       stitution.

       If both the lifespan and	the autorefresh	parameters are zero, the back-
       tick  program is	expected to stay in the	background and generate	output
       once in a while.	 In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line	of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus	or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation	will  be  dis-
       played  in  the	current	 background color. Otherwise the default back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg	[message]

       When a bell character is	sent to	a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in	the message line.  The notification message can	be re-
       defined by this command.	 Each occurrence of `%'	in message is replaced
       by  the	number	of  the	window to which	a bell has been	sent, and each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition	for bell in your term-
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

			       'Bell in	window %n'

       An  empty message can be	supplied to the	"bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line	(bell_msg "").	Without	parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [class] key	[command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound	to one or more keys as indicated in the	 "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g.	the command to create a	new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used	to  redefine  the  key
       bindings	and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either	a sin-
       gle character, a	two-character sequence of the form "^x"	 (meaning  "C-
       x"), a backslash	followed by an octal number (specifying	the ASCII code
       of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
       as  "\^"	or "\\".  The argument can also	be quoted, if you like.	 If no
       further argument	is given, any previously established binding for  this
       key is removed.	The command argument can be any	command	listed in this
       section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the	key  is	 bound
       for the specified class.	Use the	"command" command to activate a	class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or	multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

			bind ' ' windows
			bind ^k
			bind k
			bind K kill
			bind ^f	screen telnet foobar
			bind \033 screen -ln -t	root -h	1000 9 su

       would bind the space key	to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that	the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be	avail-
       able  as	 "C-a  space").	 The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.	 Then  it  binds  "C-f"	to the command "create a window	with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"	to  the	 command  that
       creates an non-login window with	a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

			bind -c	demo1 0	select 10
			bind -c	demo1 1	select 11
			bind -c	demo1 2	select 12
			bindkey	"^B" command -c	demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

			bind -c	demo2 0	select 10
			bind -c	demo2 1	select 11
			bind -c	demo2 2	select 12
			bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a -	1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of	the  tables tells screen how to	react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There	are three tables: one that should con-
       tain  actions  programmed by the	user, one for the default actions used
       for terminal emulation and one for screen's  copy  mode	to  do	cursor
       movement.  See  section	"INPUT	TRANSLATION" for a list	of default key
       bindings.

       If the -d option	is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes	the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to	 which
       an action is bound. This	can either be a	fixed string or	a termcap key-
       board capability	name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a	different string  if  applica-
       tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g	 the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
       entries in the translation table. You can select	the  application  mode
       entry by	specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One	cannot
       turn off	the timing if a	termcap	capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with	an arbitrary number  of	 args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are	some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d
       Show  all of the	default	key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the	"F1" key switch	to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo".	Timeout	is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes	 "^T" an escape	character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff	barfoo"	binding, you can enter the word	 "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want	to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e.,	escape the escape binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the	F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen	escape (besides	^A).

       break[duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to	this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may	be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a	character device is attached to	the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.

       blanker

       Activate	the screen blanker. First the screen is	cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned	off, otherwise,	the program is
       started and it's	output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first	keypress, the read key is discarded.

       This command is normally	used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines	a  blanker  program.  Disables the blanker program if an empty
       argument	is given. Shows	the currently set blanker program if no	 argu-
       ments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal	devices. This command should affect the	current	 window	 only.
       But  it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be changed
       in the future.  Calling "breaktype"  with  no  parameter	 displays  the
       break method for	the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used	for reading and	writing	with the paste buffer.
       If the optional argument	to the "bufferfile" command  is	 omitted,  the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange")	is reactivated.	 The following
       example will paste the system's password	file into  the	screen	window
       (using the paste	buffer,	where a	copy remains):

			C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
			C-a < C-a ]
			C-a : bufferfile

       bumpleft

       Swaps window with previous one on window	list.

       bumpright

       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code	 processing.  "C1  on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control  functions.   Such  an	 8-bit
       code  is	 normally  the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes	 and  can  be  changed
       with the	"defc1"	command.  Users	with fonts that	have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ]	always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the	window	captions.  Normally  a
       caption	is  only  used if more than one	window is shown	on the display
       (split screen mode). But	if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one	window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text	used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes	from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both	forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You  can	 have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom	of the
       window.	The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set	slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four	 character  of	set are	treated	as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must	be in range '0'	to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as	default	charset, unless	a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen	to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value	of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the "screen" command from within	".screenrc" or	by  means  of  "C-a  :
       screen  ^|"  or "C-a c" use this	as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would  be  the  directory  from  which  screen  was
       invoked.

       Hardcopy	 and  log  files  are  always  written to the window's default
       directory, not the current directory of the process running in the win-
       dow.   You  can	use  this  command multiple times in your .screenrc to
       start various windows in	different default directories,	but  the  last
       chdir value will	affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth	[ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters	as full/half width.

       clear

       Clears the current window and saves its image to	the scrollback buffer.

       collapse

       Reorders	window on window list, removing	number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines.  Useful  for  on-the-fly
       modification  of	 key  bindings,	 specific window creation and changing
       settings. Note that the "set" keyword no	longer	exists!	 Usually  com-
       mands affect the	current	window rather than default settings for	future
       windows.	Change defaults	with commands starting with 'def^|'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of	screen,	you may	regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as	its `Vi	command	mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
       (^A). It	is probably only useful	for key	bindings.  If the "-c"	option
       is  given,  select  the	specified  command class.  See also "bind" and
       "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells  screen  whether  to	suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl	TIOCCONS.

       copy

       Enter  copy/scrollback mode. This allows	you to copy text from the cur-
       rent window and its history into	the paste buffer. In this mode	a  vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |h, C-h,	     | move the	cursor left.				|
       |left arrow   |							|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |j, C-n,	     | move the	cursor down.				|
       |down arrow   |							|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |k, C-p,	     | move the	cursor up.				|
       |up arrow     |							|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |l ('el'),    | move the	cursor right.				|
       |right arrow  |							|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |0 (zero) C-a | move to the leftmost column.			|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |+ and -	     | positions one line up and down.			|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |H, M and L   | move  the  cursor  to the leftmost column of the	|
       |	     | top, center or bottom line of the window.	|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       ||	     | moves to	the specified absolute column.		|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |g or home    | moves to	the beginning of the buffer.		|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |G or end     | moves to	the specified absolute	line  (default:	|
       |	     | end of buffer).					|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |%	     | jumps to	the specified percentage of the	buffer.	|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |^ or $	     | move  to	 the  leftmost	column,	to the first or	|
       |	     | last non-whitespace character on	the line.	|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |w, b, and e  | move the	cursor word by word.			|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |B, E	     | move the	cursor WORD by WORD (as	in vi).		|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |f/F, t/T     | move the	cursor	forward/backward  to  the  next	|
       |	     | occurence  of  the  target. (eg,	'3fy' will move	|
       |	     | the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the	right.)		|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |; and ,	     | Repeat  the  last   f/F/t/T   command   in   the	|
       |	     | same/opposite direction.				|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |C-e and	C-y  | scroll  the  display  up/down  by one line while	|
       |	     | preserving the cursor position.			|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |C-u and	C-d  | scroll the  display  up/down  by	 the  specified	|
       |	     | amount  of  lines  while	 preserving  the cursor	|
       |	     | position. (Default: half	screen-full).		|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
       |C-b and	C-f  | scroll the display up/down a full screen.	|
       +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+

       Note: Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a  .screenrc  com-
       mand.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is	no simple method for a
       full emacs-style	keymap,	as this	involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to	do mark	and replace operations.

       The copy	range is specified by setting  two  marks.  The	 text  between
       these marks will	be highlighted.	Press:

	      space  or	enter to set the first or second mark respectively. If
	      mousetrack is set	to `on', marks can  also  be  set  using  left
	      mouse click.

	      Y	 and  y	 used  to mark one whole line or to mark from start of
	      line.

	      W	marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a  repeat  count  number  by
       pressing	digits

	      0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example:	 "C-a  C-[ H 10	j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15	into the paste
       buffer.

       The folllowing search keys are defined:

	      /	Vi-like	search forward.

	      ?	Vi-like	search backward.

	      C-a s Emacs style	incremental search forward.

	      C-r Emacs	style reverse i-search.

	      n	Find next search pattern.

	      N	Find previous search pattern.

       There are however some keys that	act differently	than in	vi.   Vi  does
       not  allow  one	to  yank  rectangular blocks of	text, but screen does.
       Press: c	or C to	set the	left  or  right	 margin	 respectively.	If  no
       repeat count is given, both default to the current cursor position.

       Example:	Try this on a rather full text screen:

	      "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This  moves  one	 to the	middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns
       left, marks the beginning of the	paste buffer, sets  the	 left  column,
       moves  5	columns	down, sets the right column, and then marks the	end of
       the paste buffer. Now try:

	      "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the	amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines	separated by a newline
       character  (012),  lines	 glued	seamless,  lines separated by a	single
       whitespace and comma separated lines. Note that	you  can  prepend  the
       newline	character with a carriage return character, by issuing a "crlf
       on".

       v or V is for all the vi	users with ":set numbers"  -  it  toggles  the
       left margin between column 9 and	1. Press

       a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the con-
       tents of	the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended  to.

       A toggles in append mode	and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark	and writes the contents	of the paste buffer to
       the screen-exchange file	(/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once	 copy-
       mode is finished.

       This  example  demonstrates  how	to dump	the whole scrollback buffer to
       that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and	column.

       x or o exchanges	the first mark and the current	cursor	position.  You
       can use this to adjust an already placed	mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not	even exit copy mode.

       All keys	not described here exit	copy mode.

       copy_reg	[key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a	[' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will	be  separated  by  the	two  character
       sequence	 `CR' -	`LF'.  Otherwise (default) only	`LF' is	used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is	toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been	compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG	debugging available and	is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging	output from the	main  "SCREEN"
       process	correctly.  Debug  output  from	attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as	 the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays	is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal	devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak	and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may	be the	only  way  to  generate	 long  breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK	may or may not produce long breaks with	spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not	only system-dependent, this also  dif-
       fers  between  serial  board  drivers.	Calling	"defbreaktype" with no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the	charset	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows is changed.	Shows current default if called	without	argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should	change
       window title when seeing	proper escape sequence.	See also "TITLES (nam-
       ing windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set  the	default	command	characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is useful	multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses-
       sion  "escape" changes the command character of the calling user, where
       "defescape" changes the default command characters for users that  will
       be added	later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as	 the flow command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed.	Initial	setting	is `auto'.  Specifying	"defflow  auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as	the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that	all new	windows	will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful	to make	the hardstatus of every	window display
       the window number or title or the like.	Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive	escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.	This was done to make a	misin-
       terpretation  of	program	generated hardstatus lines impossible.	If the
       parameter status	is omitted, the	current	default	string	is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as	 the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-
       minal.

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin	on|off

       Same as the login command except	that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed.	This is	initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-
       fig.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The mode	of each	newly allocated	pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode"	command	is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as	 the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as	 the nonblock command except that the default setting for dis-
       plays is	changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new
       displays	 is  changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special 'OL' terminal capability	if you want to have  a	depen-
       dency on	the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as	the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell	command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same  as	 the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0	milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows  is	 changed.  Initial  setting is `on' if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows  is	changed. Initially line-wrap is	on and can be toggled with the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r")	or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks	will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and	put it
       into the	background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.	 A  detached screen can	be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h	option
       tells  screen  to  immediately  close  the  connection  to the terminal
       ("hangup").

       dinfo

       Show what screen	thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate	charset	don't work.

       displays

       Shows  a	 tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful	for multiuser sessions.	 The following
       keys can	be used	in displays list:

       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |k, C-p,	or up	      |	Move up	one line.	       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |j, C-n,	or down	      |	Move down one line.	       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |C-a or home	      |	Move to	the first line.	       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |C-e or end	      |	Move to	the last line.	       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |C-u or C-d	      |	Move one half page up or down. |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |C-b or C-f	      |	Move one full page up or down. |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |mouseclick	      |	Move  to  the  selected	 line. |
       |		      |	Available when "mousetrack" is |
       |		      |	set to on.		       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |space		      |	Refresh	the list	       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |d		      |	Detach that display	       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |D		      |	Power detach that display      |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       |C-g, enter, or escape |	Exit the list		       |
       +----------------------+--------------------------------+
       The following is	an example of what "displays" could look like:
	      xterm 80x42 [email protected]/dev/ttyp4	  0(m11)   &rWx
	      facit 80x24 [email protected]/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
	      xterm 80x42 [email protected]/dev/ttyp5	  0(m11)   &R.x
	       (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)	  (H)(I))(G)	  (H)(I))(I)

       The legend is as	follows:

	      (A) The terminal type known by screen for	this display.

       (B) Displays geometry as	width x	height.

       (C) Username who	is logged in at	the display.

       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

       (E)  Display  is	 in blocking or	nonblocking mode.  The available modes
       are "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

       (F) Number of the window

       (G) Name/title of window

       (H) Whether the window is shared

       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three	characters:

		    (1st character)
		       ^-^ : no	read
		       ^r^ : read
		       ^R^ : read only due to foreign wlock
		    (2nd character)
		       ^-^ : no	write
		       ^.^ : write suppressed by foreign wlock
		       ^w^ : write
		       ^W^ : own wlock
		    (3rd character)
		       ^-^ : no	execute
		       ^x^ : execute
		     "Displays"	needs a	region size of at least	10  characters
		     wide and 5	characters high	in order to display.

	      digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

	      This  command  prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next
	      two characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the
	      resulting	 character  is inserted	in the input stream. For exam-
	      ple, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut	will be	 inserted.  If
	      the first	character entered is a 0 (zero), screen	will treat the
	      following	characters (up to three) as an octal  number  instead.
	      The  optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one
	      can create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K
	      digraph  '"'" enables the	user to	generate an a-umlaut by	typing
	      CTRL-K a.	 When a	non-zero unicode-value	is  specified,	a  new
	      digraph  is  created  with  the specified	preset.	The digraph is
	      unset if a zero value is provided	for the	unicode-value.

	      dumptermcap

	      Write the	termcap	entry for the virtual terminal	optimized  for
	      the currently active window to the file ".termcap" in the	user's
	      "$HOME/.screen" directory	(or wherever screen stores  its	 sock-
	      ets.  See	 the  "FILES"  section	below).	 This termcap entry is
	      identical	to the value of	the environment	variable $TERMCAP that
	      is  set up by screen for each window. For	terminfo based systems
	      you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile
	      the entry	with tic.

	      dynamictitle on|off

	      Change  behaviour	 for windows regarding if screen should	change
	      window title  when  seeing  proper  escape  sequence.  See  also
	      "TITLES (naming windows)"	section.

	      echo [-n]	message

	      The  echo	command	may be used to annoy screen users with a 'mes-
	      sage  of	 the   day'.   Typically   installed   in   a	global
	      /local/etc/screenrc.   The  option  "-n" may be used to suppress
	      the line feed.  See also	"sleep".   Echo	 is  also  useful  for
	      online checking of environment variables.

	      encoding enc [enc]

	      Tell  screen  how	to interpret the input/output. The first argu-
	      ment sets	the encoding of	the current window.  Each  window  can
	      emulate  a  different  encoding.	The  optional second parameter
	      overwrites the encoding of the  connected	 terminal.  It	should
	      never  be	needed as screen uses the locale setting to detect the
	      encoding.	 There is also a way to	 select	 a  terminal  encoding
	      depending	 on the	terminal type by using the "KJ"	termcap	entry.

	      Supported	encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR,  eucCN,  Big5,  GBK,
	      KOI8-R,  KOI8-U, CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4,
	      ISO8859-5,   ISO8859-6,	ISO8859-7,    ISO8859-8,    ISO8859-9,
	      ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

	      See  also	 "defencoding",	which changes the default setting of a
	      new window.

	      escape xy

	      Set the command character	to x and the  character	 generating  a
	      literal  command character (by triggering	the "meta" command) to
	      y	(similar to the	-e option).  Each argument is either a	single
	      character,  a  two-character  sequence of	the form "^x" (meaning
	      "C-x"), a	backslash followed by an octal number (specifying  the
	      ASCII  code of the character), or	a backslash followed by	a sec-
	      ond character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The	default	is "^Aa".

	      eval command1[command2 ^a|]

	      Parses and executes each argument	as separate command.

	      exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ^a|]]

	      Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable	 path  newcom-
	      mand and its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow
	      of data between  newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr,  the  process
	      originally  started  in the window (let us call it "application-
	      process")	and screen itself (window) is controlled by  the  file
	      descriptor  pattern  fdpat.   This  pattern is basically a three
	      character	sequence representing stdin, stdout and	stderr of new-
	      command.	A  dot (.) connects the	file descriptor	to screen.  An
	      exclamation mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be  connected
	      to  the  application-process.  A	colon (:) combines both.  User
	      input will go  to	 newcommand  unless  newcommand	 receives  the
	      application-process'  output  (fdpats  first character is	`!' or
	      `:') or a	pipe symbol (|)	is added (as a	fourth	character)  to
	      the end of fdpat.

	      Invoking	`exec'	without	 arguments shows name and arguments of
	      the currently running subprocess in this window. Only  one  sub-
	      process a	time can be running in each window.

	      When  a  subprocess is running the `kill'	command	will affect it
	      instead of the windows process.

	      Refer to the postscript  file  `doc/fdpat.ps'  for  a  confusing
	      illustration of all 21 possible combinations. Each drawing shows
	      the digits 2,1,0 representing the	three file descriptors of new-
	      command. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that	has the	appli-
	      cation-process on	its slave side.	 The box  marked  `P'  is  the
	      secondary	pty that now has screen	at its master side.

	      Abbreviations:  Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and
	      the command can be omitted. Trailing dots	and a fdpat consisting
	      only  of dots can	be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the
	      pattern `!..|'; the word exec can	be omitted here	and can	always
	      be replaced by `!'.

	      Examples:

		     exec ^| /bin/sh

		     exec /bin/sh

		     !/bin/sh

			    Creates  another  shell  in	the same window, while
			    the	original shell is  still  running.  Output  of
			    both shells	is displayed and user input is sent to
			    the	new /bin/sh.

		     exec !.. stty 19200

		     exec ! stty 19200

		     !!stty 19200

			    Set	the speed of the window's tty.	If  your  stty
			    command  operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

		     exec !..| less

		     |less

			    This adds a	pager to the window output.  The  spe-
			    cial character `|' is needed to give the user con-
			    trol over the pager	although  it  gets  its	 input
			    from  the  window's	 process.  This	works, because
			    less listens on stderr  (a	behavior  that	screen
			    would  not	expect without the `|')	when its stdin
			    is not a tty.  Less	versions newer than  177  fail
			    miserably here; good old pg	still works.

		     !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

			    Sends  window output to both, the user and the sed
			    command. The sed inserts an	additional bell	 char-
			    acter  (oct.  007)	to  the	 window	output seen by
			    screen.  This will cause "Bell in window  x"  mes-
			    sages,  whenever the string	"Error"	appears	in the
			    window.

	      fit

	      Change the window	size to	the size of the	current	 region.  This
	      command  is  needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size
	      automatically if the window is displayed more than once.

	      flow   [on|off|auto]

	      Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without  parameters
	      it  cycles the current window's flow-control setting from	"auto-
	      matic" to	"on" to	"off".	See the	discussion  on	"FLOW-CONTROL"
	      later  on	 in this document for full details and note, that this
	      is subject to change in future  releases.	  Default  is  set  by
	      `defflow'.

	      focus [next|prev|up|down|left|right|top|bottom]

	      Move  the	 input	focus  to  the	next region. This is done in a
	      cyclic way so that the top left region  is  selected  after  the
	      bottom  right  one. If no	option is given	it defaults to `next'.
	      The next region to be selected is	determined by how the  regions
	      are  layered.  Normally, the next	region in the same layer would
	      be selected.  However, if	that next region contains one or  more
	      layers, the first	region in the highest layer is selected	first.
	      If you are at the	last region of the current layer, `next'  will
	      move  the	 focus to the next region in the lower layer (if there
	      is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles	in  the	 opposite  order.  See
	      "split" for more information about layers.

	      The  rest	 of the	options	(`up', `down', `left', `right',	`top',
	      and `bottom') are	more indifferent to layers.  The  option  `up'
	      will  move  the  focus upward to the region that is touching the
	      upper left corner	of the current region.	`Down' will move down-
	      ward to the region that is touching the lower left corner	of the
	      current region. The option `left'	will move the  focus  leftward
	      to the region that is touching the upper left corner of the cur-
	      rent region, while `right' will move  rightward  to  the	region
	      that  is	touching the upper right corner	of the current region.
	      Moving left from a left most region or moving right from a right
	      most region will result in no action.

	      The option `top' will move the focus to the very first region in
	      the upper	list corner of the screen, and `bottom'	will  move  to
	      the  region  in the bottom right corner of the screen. Moving up
	      from a top most region or	moving down from a bottom most	region
	      will result in no	action.

	      Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and	l as in	vi)
		  bind h focus left
		  bind j focus down
		  bind k focus up
		  bind l focus right
		  bind t focus top
		  bind b focus bottom
	      Note that	k is traditionally bound to the	kill command.

	      focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

	      This  forces  any	 currently selected region to be automatically
	      resized at least a certain width and height. All other surround-
	      ing  regions will	be resized in order to accommodate.  This con-
	      straint follows everytime	 the  "focus"  command	is  used.  The
	      "resize"	command	 can be	used to	increase either	dimension of a
	      region, but never	below what is  set  with  "focusminsize".  The
	      underscore  `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and	height
	      of `0 0' (zero zero) will	undo any  constraints  and  allow  for
	      manual  resizing.	 Without any parameters, the minimum width and
	      height is	shown.

	      gr [on|off]

	      Turn GR charset switching	on/off.	Whenever screen	sees an	 input
	      character	 with  the 8th bit set,	it will	use the	charset	stored
	      in the GR	 slot  and  print  the	character  with	 the  8th  bit
	      stripped.	 The  default  (see also "defgr") is not to process GR
	      switching	because	otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

	      group [grouptitle]

	      Change  or show the group	the current window belongs to. Windows
	      can be moved around between different groups by  specifying  the
	      name  of	the destination	group. Without specifying a group, the
	      title of the current group is displayed.

	      hardcopy [-h] [file]

	      Writes out the currently displayed image to the file  file,  or,
	      if no filename is	specified, to hardcopy.n in the	default	direc-
	      tory, where n is the number of the current window.  This	either
	      appends  or overwrites the file if it exists. See	below.	If the
	      option -h	is specified, dump also	the contents of	the scrollback
	      buffer.

	      hardcopy_append on|off

	      If  set  to  "on",  screen will append to	the "hardcopy.n" files
	      created by the command "C-a h", otherwise	these files are	 over-
	      written each time.  Default is `off'.

	      hardcopydir directory

	      Defines  a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If
	      unset, hardcopys are dumped in screen's current  working	direc-
	      tory.

	      hardstatus [on|off]

	      hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

	      hardstatus string[string]

	      This  command configures the use and emulation of	the terminal's
	      hardstatus line. The first form toggles whether screen will  use
	      the hardware status line to display messages. If the flag	is set
	      to `off',	these messages are overlaid in reverse video  mode  at
	      the display line.	The default setting is `on'.

	      The  second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't
	      have a hardstatus	line (i.e. the	termcap/terminfo  capabilities
	      "hs",  "ts",  "fs" and "ds" are not set).	 When "firstline/last-
	      line" is used, screen will reserve the first/last	 line  of  the
	      display  for  the	 hardstatus.  "message"	 uses screen's message
	      mechanism	and "ignore" tells screen never	to display  the	 hard-
	      status.	If  you	 prepend  the word "always" to the type	(e.g.,
	      "alwayslastline"), screen	will use the type even if the terminal
	      supports a hardstatus.

	      The  third  form	specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.
	      '%h' is used as default string, i.e., the	stored	hardstatus  of
	      the   current   window   (settable   via	"ESC]0;<string>^G"  or
	      "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.	 You can customize this	to any
	      string  you like including the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES"
	      chapter. If you leave  out  the  argument	 string,  the  current
	      string is	displayed.

	      You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as
	      additional argument.

	      height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

	      Set the display height to	a specified number of lines.  When  no
	      argument	is  given  it toggles between 24 and 42	lines display.
	      You can also specify a width if you want to change both  values.
	      The  -w  option tells screen to leave the	display	size unchanged
	      and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

	      help[class]

	      Not really a online help,	but displays a help screen showing you
	      all  the	key  bindings.	 The first pages list all the internal
	      commands followed	by their current bindings.   Subsequent	 pages
	      will  display  the  custom commands, one command per key.	 Press
	      space when you're	done reading each  page,  or  return  to  exit
	      early.   All other characters are	ignored. If the	"-c" option is
	      given, display all bound	commands  for  the  specified  command
	      class.  See also "DEFAULT	KEY BINDINGS" section.

	      history

	      Usually  users work with a shell that allows easy	access to pre-
	      vious commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to	repeat
	      the  last	 command executed.  Screen allows you to have a	primi-
	      tive way of re-calling "the command that started ^|":  You  just
	      type  the	 first	letter	of  that command, then hit `C-a	{' and
	      screen tries to find a  previous	line  that  matches  with  the
	      `prompt  character'  to  the  left  of  the cursor. This line is
	      pasted into this window's	input queue.  Thus you	have  a	 crude
	      command  history	(made up by the	visible	window and its scroll-
	      back buffer).

	      hstatus status

	      Change the window's hardstatus line to the string	status.

	      idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

	      Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds
	      inactivity  is  reached.	This  command  will  normally  be  the
	      "blanker"	command	to create a screen blanker, but	it can be  any
	      screen command.  If no command is	specified, only	the timeout is
	      set. A timeout of	zero (or the special timeout off) disables the
	      timer.  If no arguments are given, the current settings are dis-
	      played.

	      ignorecase [on|off]

	      Tell screen to  ignore  the  case	 of  characters	 in  searches.
	      Default  is  `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase
	      is toggled.

	      info

	      Uses the message line to display some information	about the cur-
	      rent  window:  the  cursor  position  in the form	"(column,row)"
	      starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width	and  height  plus  the
	      size  of	the  scrollback	buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50",
	      the current state	of window XON/XOFF flow	control	is shown  like
	      this (See	also section FLOW CONTROL):

		+flow	  automatic flow control, currently on.
		-flow	  automatic flow control, currently off.
		+(+)flow  flow control enabled.	Agrees with automatic control.
		-(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with	automatic control.
		+(-)flow  flow control enabled.	Disagrees with automatic control.
		-(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees	with automatic control.

	      The  current  line  wrap	setting	 (`+wrap'  indicates  enabled,
	      `-wrap' not) is also  shown.  The	 flags	`ins',	`org',	`app',
	      `log',  `mon'  or	 `nored'  are  displayed when the window is in
	      insert mode, origin mode,	application-keypad  mode,  has	output
	      logging, activity	monitoring or partial redraw enabled.

	      The  currently  active  character	set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)	and in
	      square brackets the terminal character sets that	are  currently
	      designated  as G0	through	G3 is shown. If	the window is in UTF-8
	      mode, the	string "UTF-8" is shown	instead.

	      Additional modes depending on the	type of	the  window  are  dis-
	      played  at  the end of the status	line (See also chapter "WINDOW
	      TYPES").

	      If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-
	      default  state, the info line is started with a string identify-
	      ing the current state.

	      For system information use the "time" command.

	      ins_reg [key]

	      No longer	exists,	use "paste" instead.

	      kill

	      Kill current window.

	      If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.	Other-
	      wise the process (shell) running in the window receives a	HANGUP
	      condition, the window structure is removed and screen (your dis-
	      play)  switches  to  another  window.   When  the	last window is
	      destroyed, screen	exits.	After a	kill screen  switches  to  the
	      previously displayed window.

	      Note: Emacs users	should keep this command in mind, when killing
	      a	line.  It is recommended not to	use "C-a" as the screen	escape
	      key or to	rebind kill to "C-a K".

	      lastmsg

	      Redisplay	 the last contents of the message/status line.	Useful
	      if you're	typing when a message appears,	because	  the  message
	      goes away	when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hard-
	      ware status line).  Refer	to the commands	"msgwait" and "msgmin-
	      wait" for	fine tuning.

	      layout new [title]

	      Create  a	new layout. The	screen will change to one whole	region
	      and be switched to the blank window. From	here,  you  build  the
	      regions  and the windows they show as you	desire.	The new	layout
	      will be numbered with the	smallest available  integer,  starting
	      with  zero.  You can optionally give a title to your new layout.
	      Otherwise, it will have a	default	title  of  "layout".  You  can
	      always change the	title later by using the command layout	title.

	      layout remove [n|title]

	      Remove, or in other words, delete	the specified  layout.	Either
	      the  number or the title can be specified. Without either	speci-
	      fication,	screen will remove the current layout.

	      Removing a layout	does not affect	your set windows or regions.

	      layout next

	      Switch to	the next layout	available

	      layout prev

	      Switch to	the previous layout available

	      layout select [n|title]

	      Select the desired layout. Either	the number or the title	can be
	      specified.  Without either specification,	screen will prompt and
	      ask which	screen is desired. To see which	layouts	are available,
	      use the layout show command.

	      layout show

	      List  on	the  message  line  the	 number(s) and title(s)	of the
	      available	layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

	      layout title [title]

	      Change or	display	the title of  the  current  layout.  A	string
	      given  will be used to name the layout. Without any options, the
	      current title and	number is displayed on the message line.

	      layout number [n]

	      Change or	display	the number of the current layout.  An  integer
	      given  will  be  used to number the layout. Without any options,
	      the current number and title is displayed	on the message line.

	      layout attach [title|:last]

	      Change or	display	which layout to	reattach back to. The  default
	      is  :last,  which	tells screen to	reattach back to the last used
	      layout just before detachment. By	supplying  a  title,  You  can
	      instruct	screen	to  reattach to	a particular layout regardless
	      which one	was used  at  the  time	 of  detachment.  Without  any
	      options,	the layout to reattach to will be shown	in the message
	      line.

	      layout save [n|title]

	      Remember the current arrangement of regions. When	 used,	screen
	      will  remember  the  arrangement	of vertically and horizontally
	      split regions. This arrangement is restored when a  screen  ses-
	      sion  is reattached or switched back from	a different layout. If
	      the session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrange-
	      ments are	lost. The layout dump command should help in this siu-
	      tation. If a number or title is supplied,	screen	will  remember
	      the  arrangement of that particular layout. Without any options,
	      screen will remember the current layout.

	      Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the  lay-
	      out autosave command.

	      layout autosave [on|off]

	      Change or	display	the status of automatcally saving layouts. The
	      default is on, meaning when screen is detached or	changed	 to  a
	      different	layout,	the arrangement	of regions and windows will be
	      remembered at the	time of	change and restored upon  return.   If
	      autosave	is  set	to off,	that arrangement will only be restored
	      to either	to the last manual save, using layout save, or to when
	      the  layout  was first created, to a single region with a	single
	      window. Without either an	on or off, the current status is  dis-
	      played on	the message line.

	      layout dump [filename]

	      Write  to	a file the order of splits made	in the current layout.
	      This is useful to	recreate the order of  your  regions  used  in
	      your  current layout. Only the current layout is recorded. While
	      the order	of the	regions	 are  recorded,	 the  sizes  of	 those
	      regions  and  which windows correspond to	which regions are not.
	      If no filename is	specified, the default is  layout-dump,	 saved
	      in  the directory	that the screen	process	was started in.	If the
	      file already exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an
	      example:

				    C-a	: layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

	      will save	or append the layout to	the user's .screenrc file.

	      license

	      Display  the  disclaimer	page.  This is done whenever screen is
	      started without options, which should be often enough. See  also
	      the "startup_message" command.

	      lockscreen

	      Lock this	display.  Call a screenlock program (/local/bin/lck or
	      /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no	other  is  available).	Screen
	      does  not	accept any command keys	until this program terminates.
	      Meanwhile	processes in the windows may continue, as the  windows
	      are  in  the  `detached'	state.	The  screenlock	program	may be
	      changed through the environment variable $LOCKPRG	(which must be
	      set  in  the shell from which screen is started) and is executed
	      with the user's uid and gid.

	      Warning: When you	leave other shells unlocked and	 you  have  no
	      password	set  on	screen,	the lock is void: One could easily re-
	      attach from an unlocked shell. This  feature  should  rather  be
	      called `lockterminal'.

	      log [on|off]

	      Start/stop  writing  output  of  the  current  window  to	a file
	      "screenlog.n" in the window's default directory, where n is  the
	      number  of the current window. This filename can be changed with
	      the `logfile' command. If	no parameter is	given,	the  state  of
	      logging  is toggled. The session log is appended to the previous
	      contents of the file if it already exists. The current  contents
	      and  the	contents of the	scrollback history are not included in
	      the session log.	Default	is `off'.

	      logfile filename

	      logfile flush secs

	      Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screen-
	      log.%n".	The  second  form changes the number of	seconds	screen
	      will wait	before flushing	the logfile buffer to the file-system.
	      The default value	is 10 seconds.

	      login [on|off]

	      Adds or removes the entry	in the utmp database file for the cur-
	      rent window.  This controls if the window	is `logged in'.	  When
	      no parameter is given, the login state of	the window is toggled.
	      Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log  in'
	      and  a  `log  out' key. E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login
	      off' will	map these keys to be C-a I and	C-a  O.	  The  default
	      setting  (in  config.h.in) should	be "on"	for a screen that runs
	      under suid-root.	Use  the  "deflogin"  command  to  change  the
	      default  login  state  for  new  windows.	Both commands are only
	      present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

	      logtstamp	[on|off]

	      logtstamp	after [secs]

	      logtstamp	string
	      [string]

	      This command controls logfile time-stamp	mechanism  of  screen.
	      If  time-stamps are turned "on", screen adds a string containing
	      the current time to the logfile after two	minutes	of inactivity.
	      When  output  continues  and  more than another two minutes have
	      passed, a	second time-stamp is added to document the restart  of
	      the  output. You can change this timeout with the	second form of
	      the command. The third form is used for  customizing  the	 time-
	      stamp string (`--	%n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y	%c:%s --\n' by
	      default).

	      mapdefault

	      Tell screen that the next	input character	should only be	looked
	      up in the	default	bindkey	table. See also	"bindkey".

	      mapnotnext

	      Like  mapdefault,	but don't even look in the default bindkey ta-
	      ble.

	      maptimeout [timeout]

	      Set the inter-character timer for	input sequence detection to  a
	      timeout  of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout
	      with no arguments	shows the current setting.   See  also	"bind-
	      key".

	      markkeys string

	      This  is	a  method of changing the keymap used for copy/history
	      mode.  The string	is made	up of oldchar=newchar pairs which  are
	      separated	 by  `:'.  Example: The	string "B=^B:F=^F" will	change
	      the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down
	      fill  page).  This happens to be the default binding for `B' and
	      `F'.  The	command	"markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would	set  the  mode
	      for  an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal sends characters,
	      that cause you to	abort copy mode, then this command may help by
	      binding  these characters	to do nothing.	The no-op character is
	      `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do  not  want
	      to  use  the  `H'	 or `L'	commands any longer.  As shown in this
	      example, multiple	keys can be assigned to	one function in	a sin-
	      gle statement.

	      maxwin num

	      Set the maximum window number screen will	create.	Doesn't	affect
	      already existing windows.	The number can be increased only  when
	      there are	no existing windows.

	      meta

	      Insert the command character (C-a) in the	current	window's input
	      stream.

	      monitor [on|off]

	      Toggles activity monitoring  of  windows.	  When	monitoring  is
	      turned  on  and  an  affected  window is switched	into the back-
	      ground, you will receive the activity  notification  message  in
	      the  status line at the first sign of output and the window will
	      also be marked with an `@' in the	window-status display.	 Moni-
	      toring is	initially off for all windows.

	      mousetrack [on|off]

	      This  command  determines	 whether  screen  will watch for mouse
	      clicks. When this	command	is enabled,  regions  that  have  been
	      split in various ways can	be selected by pointing	to them	with a
	      mouse and	left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off,  the
	      current  state  is displayed. The	default	state is determined by
	      the "defmousetrack" command.

	      msgminwait sec

	      Defines the time screen delays a new message when	one message is
	      currently	displayed.  The	default	is 1 second.

	      msgwait sec

	      Defines  the  time  a message is displayed if screen is not dis-
	      turbed by	other activity.	The default is 5 seconds.

	      multiuser	on|off

	      Switch between singleuser	and multiuser  mode.  Standard	screen
	      operation	  is   singleuser.  In	multiuser  mode	 the  commands
	      `acladd',	`aclchg', `aclgrp' and `acldel'	can be used to	enable
	      (and disable) other users	accessing this screen session.

	      nethack on|off

	      Changes the kind of error	messages used by screen.  When you are
	      familiar with the	game "nethack",	you  may  enjoy	 the  nethack-
	      style messages which will	often blur the facts a little, but are
	      much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be
	      unclear as well.
	      This  option  is	only available if screen was compiled with the
	      NETHACK flag defined. The	default	setting	is then	determined  by
	      the presence of the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the
	      file ~/.nethackrc	- if either one	is present, the	default	is on.

	      next

	      Switch  to the next window.  This	command	can be used repeatedly
	      to cycle through the list	of windows.

	      nonblock
		     [on|off|numsecs]

	      Tell screen how to deal with  user  interfaces  (displays)  that
	      cease  to	accept output. This can	happen if a user presses ^S or
	      a	TCP/modem connection gets cut but no hangup  is	 received.  If
	      nonblock	is  off	 (this	is the default)	screen waits until the
	      display restarts to accept the output. If	nonblock is on,	screen
	      waits until the timeout is reached (on is	treated	as 1s).	If the
	      display still doesn't receive characters,	screen	will  consider
	      it  "blocked" and	stop sending characters	to it. If at some time
	      it restarts to accept characters,	screen will unblock  the  dis-
	      play and redisplay the updated window contents.

	      number [[+|-]n]

	      Change  the  current  window's  number. If the given number n is
	      already used by another window, both windows exchange their num-
	      bers.  If	 no  argument  is specified, the current window	number
	      (and title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the  window's
	      number by	the relative amount specified.

	      obuflimit	[limit]

	      If  the  output  buffer  contains	 more bytes than the specified
	      limit, no	more data will be read from the	windows.  The  default
	      value  is	 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm), you can
	      set it to	some higher value. If no argument  is  specified,  the
	      current setting is displayed.

	      only

	      Kill all regions but the current one.

	      other

	      Switch  to  the window displayed previously. If this window does
	      no longer	exist, other has the same effect as next.

	      partial on|off

	      Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with	redis-
	      play)  after  switching to the current window. This command only
	      affects the current window.  To immediately affect  all  windows
	      use  the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This
	      default is fixed,	as there is currently no defpartial command.

	      password [crypted_pw]

	      Present a	crypted	password in your ".screenrc" file  and	screen
	      will ask for it, whenever	someone	attempts to resume a detached.
	      This is useful if	you have  privileged  programs	running	 under
	      screen  and  you	want  to  protect  your	 session from reattach
	      attempts by another user masquerading  as	 your  uid  (i.e.  any
	      superuser.)  If no crypted password is specified,	screen prompts
	      twice for	typing a password and places  its  encryption  in  the
	      paste  buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password	check-
	      ing.

	      paste [registers [dest_reg]]

	      Write the	(concatenated) contents	of the specified registers  to
	      the  stdin  queue	 of  the  current  window. The register	'.' is
	      treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given  the  user
	      is  prompted  for	 a single register to paste.  The paste	buffer
	      can be filled with  the  copy,  history  and  readbuf  commands.
	      Other  registers	can  be	 filled	with the register, readreg and
	      paste commands.  If paste	is called with a second	argument,  the
	      contents	of  the	 specified  registers is pasted	into the named
	      destination register rather than the window. If '.' is  used  as
	      the  second  argument, the displays paste	buffer is the destina-
	      tion.  Note, that	"paste"	uses  a	 wide  variety	of  resources:
	      Whenever	a  second  argument  is	specified no current window is
	      needed. When the source specification  only  contains  registers
	      (not  the	paste buffer) then there need not be a current display
	      (terminal	attached), as the registers are	a global resource. The
	      paste buffer exists once for every user.

	      pastefont	[on|off]

	      Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The
	      default is not to	do so. This command is especially  useful  for
	      multi character fonts like kanji.

	      pow_break

	      Reopen  the  window's  terminal line and send a break condition.
	      See `break'.

	      pow_detach

	      Power detach.  Mainly the	same  as  detach,  but	also  sends  a
	      HANGUP  signal  to  the parent process of	screen.	 CAUTION: This
	      will result in a logout,	when  screen  was  started  from  your
	      login-shell.

	      pow_detach_msg [message]

	      The  message  specified here is output whenever a	`Power detach'
	      was performed. It	may be used as a replacement for a logout mes-
	      sage or to reset baud rate, etc.	Without	parameter, the current
	      message is shown.

	      prev

	      Switch to	the window with	the next lower number.	 This  command
	      can be used repeatedly to	cycle through the list of windows.

	      printcmd [cmd]

	      If  cmd is not an	empty string, screen will not use the terminal
	      capabilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence	ESC  [
	      5	 i,  but  pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a
	      command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without
	      a	command	displays the current setting.  The ansi	sequence ESC \
	      ends printing and	closes the pipe.

	      Warning: Be careful with this command! If	other user have	 write
	      access  to  your	terminal,  they	will be	able to	fire off print
	      commands.

	      process [key]

	      Stuff the	contents of the	specified register into	screen's input
	      queue.  If  no argument is given you are prompted	for a register
	      name. The	text is	parsed as if it	had been  typed	 in  from  the
	      user's  keyboard.	 This  command	can  be	 used to bind multiple
	      actions to a single key.

	      quit

	      Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that	on VT100-style
	      terminals	 the  keys  C-4	and C-\	are identical.	This makes the
	      default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4  when
	      selecting	window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind
	      '^\'") to	remove a key binding.

	      readbuf [encoding] [filename]

	      Reads the	contents of the	specified file into the	paste  buffer.
	      You  can tell screen the encoding	of the file via	the -e option.
	      If no file is specified, the screen-exchange filename  is	 used.
	      See also "bufferfile" command.

	      readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

	      Does  one	 of two	things,	dependent on number of arguments: with
	      zero or one arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents
	      into  the	 register specified or entered at the prompt. With two
	      arguments	it reads the contents of the named file	into the  reg-
	      ister,  just  as readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the
	      paste buffer.  You can tell screen the encoding of the file  via
	      the  -e  option.	 The following example will paste the system's
	      password file into the screen window (using register p, where  a
	      copy remains):

				    C-a	: readreg p /etc/passwd
	      C-a : paste p

	      redisplay

	      Redisplay	 the  current  window.	Needed to get a	full redisplay
	      when in partial redraw mode.

	      register [-eencoding]key-string

	      Save the specified string	to the register	key.  The encoding  of
	      the  string  can	be  specified via the -e option.  See also the
	      "paste" command.

	      remove

	      Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there	 is  only  one
	      region.

	      removebuf

	      Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf"
	      and "readbuf".

	      rendition	bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

	      Change the way screen renders the	titles of  windows  that  have
	      monitor  or  bell	 flags	set  in	 caption or hardstatus or win-
	      dowlist. See the "STRING ESCAPES"	chapter	for the	syntax of  the
	      modifiers.   The	default	 for monitor is	currently "=b "	(bold,
	      active colors), for bell "=ub " (underline, bold and active col-
	      ors), and	"=u " for silence.

	      reset

	      Reset the	virtual	terminal to its	"power-on" values. Useful when
	      strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics	character set)
	      are left over from an application.

	      resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

	      Resize  the  current  region.  The space will be removed from or
	      added to the surrounding regions depending on the	order  of  the
	      splits.	The  available	options	for resizing are `-h'(horizon-
	      tal), `-v'(vertical),  `-b'(both),  `-l'(local  to  layer),  and
	      `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal resizes will add or remove width
	      to a region, vertical will add or	remove height, and  both  will
	      add or remove size from both dimensions. Local and perpendicular
	      are similar to horizontal	and vertical, but they take in account
	      of  how  a region	was split.  If a region's last split was hori-
	      zontal, a	local resize will work like a vertical	resize.	 If  a
	      region's	last split was vertical, a local resize	will work like
	      a	horizontal resize. Perpendicular resizes work in  opposite  of
	      local  resizes. If no option is specified, local is the default.

	      The amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed  a	couple
	      of  different  ways.  By	specifying  a  number n	by itself will
	      resize the region	by that	absolute amount.  You  can  specify  a
	      relative	amount	by  prefixing  a  plus `+' or minus `-'	to the
	      amount, such as adding +n	lines or removing -n  lines.  Resizing
	      can  also	 be expressed as an absolute or	relative percentage by
	      postfixing a percent sign	`%'. Using zero	`0' is a  synonym  for
	      `min' and	using an underscore `_'	is a synonym for `max'.

	      Some examples are:

	      resize +N
		     increase current region by	N

	      resize -N
		     decrease current region by	N

	      resize  N
		     set current region	to N

	      resize 20%
		     set current region	to 20% of original size

	      resize +20%
		     increase current region by	20%

	      resize -b	=
		     make all windows equally

	      resize  max
		     maximize current region

	      resize  min
		     minimize current region

	      Without any arguments, screen will prompt	for how	you would like
	      to resize	the current region.

	      See "focusminsize" if you	want to	restrict the  minimun  size  a
	      region can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) ,	terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the	all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback	option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with	each command.  The option  (-M)	 turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this	window.	 If an optional	number n in the	range  0..MAXWIN-1  is
       given, the window number	n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if this number is already in-use, the next  available  number).	 If  a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments) is started in the	window;	otherwise, a  shell  is	 created.   If
       //group	is supplied, a container-type window is	created	in which other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if	your ".screenrc" contains the lines

			     # example for .screenrc:
			     screen 1
			     screen -fn	-t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a	shell window (in window	#1) and	a window with a	TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       "foobar"	in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of  the
       telnet session.	Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is	created	when "screen" commands are included in
       your  ".screenrc"  file.	 When  the initialization is completed,	screen
       switches	to the last window specified in	your  .screenrc	 file  or,  if
       none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen  has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
       lines.  The  default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscroll-
       back" command and use "info" to view the	current	setting. To access and
       use the contents	in the scrollback buffer, use the "copy" command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The	param-
       eter  is	 optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for	an identifier.
       When a new  window  is  established,  the  first	 available  number  is
       assigned	 to  this  window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by
       "select 0".  The	number of windows is limited at	 compile-time  by  the
       MAXWIN  configuration  parameter	(which defaults	to 40).	 There are two
       special WindowIDs, "-"  selects	the  internal  blank  window  and  "."
       selects	the current window. The	latter is useful if used with screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that  for  "screen  -list"  the  name
       shows up	with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted, the	name of	this session is	displayed. Caution: The	$STY  environ-
       ment  variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing shells.
       This may	result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discour-
       aged.  Use  the "-S" command-line option	if you want to name a new ses-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var	to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified,  the  user  will be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters
       are specified, the user will be prompted	for both variable  and	value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently	forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally	screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If	setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will  be	 in the	same process group as the screen backend process. This
       also breaks job-control,	so be careful.	The default is on, of  course.
       This command is probably	useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the	 command to be used to create a	new shell.  This overrides the
       value of	the environment	variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to  run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the	program	speci-
       fied in $SHELL.	If the command begins with a '-' character, the	 shell
       will  be	 started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only minimal ini-
       tialization when	not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read
       your "~/.bashrc"	unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the	 title for all shells created during startup or	by the C-A C-c
       command.	 For details about what	a title	is, see	the  discussion	 enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles	silence	 monitoring of windows.	 When silence is turned	on and
       an affected window is switched into the background,  you	 will  receive
       the  silence  notification message in the status	line after a specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the  `silencewait' command or by	specifying a number of seconds instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all	windows	 monitored  for	 silence  should  wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command will pause	the execution of a .screenrc file for num sec-
       onds.  Keyboard activity	will end the sleep.  It	may be	used  to  give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text	is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If	the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written	character by character.	 screen	will make a pause of msec mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the	application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if	your underlying	system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       sort

       Sort the	windows	in alphabetical	order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and	execute	commands from file file. Source	commands may be	nested
       to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
       and screen is already processing	a source command, the parent directory
       of  the	running	source command file is used to search for the new com-
       mand file before	screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
       and  reattach  time,  so	 they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to	have an	effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split[-v]

       Split the current region	into two new ones. All regions on the  display
       are  resized  to	make room for the new region. The blank	window is dis-
       played in the new region. The default is	to create a horizontal	split,
       putting the new regions on the top and bottom of	each other. Using `-v'
       will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to	appear side by
       side  of	 each other.  Use the "remove" or the "only" command to	delete
       regions.	 Use "focus" to	toggle between regions.

       When a region is	split opposite of how it was  previously  split	 (that
       is,  vertical then horizontal or	horizontal then	vertical), a new layer
       is created. The layer is	used to	group together the  regions  that  are
       split  the  same.  Normally,  as	a user,	you should not see nor have to
       worry about layers, but they will affect	how some commands ("focus" and
       "resize") behave.

       With  this current implementation of screen, scrolling data will	appear
       much slower in a	vertically split region	than one  that	is  not.  This
       should  be  taken into consideration if you need	to use system commands
       such as "cat" or	"tail -f".

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the  copyright  notice  during  startup.
       Default is `on',	as you probably	noticed.

       status [top|up|down|bottom]
	      [left|right]

       The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This command can
       move status messages to any corner of the screen. top is	 the  same  as
       up, down	is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the input buffer	of the current window.
       This is like the	"paste"	command	but with much less overhead.   Without
       a  parameter,  screen  will  prompt  for	a string to stuff.  You	cannot
       paste large buffers with	the "stuff" command. It	is most	useful for key
       bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute  the	user of	a display. The command prompts for all parame-
       ters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,  they
       have  to	be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched against
       the systems passwd database, the	second password	is matched against the
       screen  password	as set with the	commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su"
       may be useful for the screen administrator to  test  multiuser  setups.
       When  the  identification  fails,  the  user has	access to the commands
       available for user nobody.  These are "detach",	"license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".

       suspend

       Suspend	screen.	 The windows are in the	`detached' state, while	screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the	shell being  able  to  do  job
       control.

       term term

       In each window's	environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is	set to
       "screen"	by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the	local  termcap or terminfo data	base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100".	This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use	 of the	"term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is,	one may	want to	specify	special	$TERM  settings	 (e.g.	vt100)
       for  the	 next  "screen	rlogin	othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100	rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo	term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term	terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your	terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved	in creating a  custom  termcap	entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the	termcap	generated for the win-
       dows.  You have to place	these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal	emulator is booted.

       If  your	 system	 works uses the	terminfo database rather than termcap,
       screen will understand the  `terminfo'  command,	 which	has  the  same
       effects	as the `termcap' command.  Two separate	commands are provided,
       as there	are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
       ities have to be	used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the	arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the	command	`termcapinfo', which is	just a
       shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo'	commands with  identi-
       cal arguments.

       The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should	be affected by
       this definition.	 You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them  with `|'s.	 Use `*' to match all terminals	and `vt*' to match all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one	or more	termcap	defines	(separated  by
       `:'s)  to  be  inserted	at the start of	the appropriate	termcap	entry,
       enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The	first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminal's	 termcap,  and contains	definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second	(optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow termcaps, and should	contain	definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the	"VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:[email protected]

       Informs	screen	that  all  terminals that begin	with `xterm' have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last	position on the	screen to  be  updated
       (LP), but they don't really have	a status line (no 'hs' - append	`@' to
       turn entries off).  Note	that we	assume `LP'  for  all  terminal	 names
       that  start  with "vt", but only	if you don't specify a termcap command
       for that	terminal.
	      termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP'	 capability  for  all  terminals  that
       begin with `vt',	and the	second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out	of (Z1)	132-character-per-line mode if
       this  is	a VT102	or VT220.  (You	must specify Z0	and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""	 l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your	vt100 termcap alone and	adds the function  key	labels
       to each window's	termcap	entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  [email protected]:im=\[email protected]:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off	auto-margins ([email protected]) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and	end-insert (ei)	capabilities (the `@'  in  the
       `im' string is after the	`=', so	it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im' and	`ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will	 cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the	character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will	also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc)	added to its termcap, which screen will	translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
       character deletion).

       If  you	would  like  to	fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the	 discussion  on	the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information	on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses the	message	line to	display	the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the	format of the time report like
       it  is described	in the "STRING ESCAPES"	chapter. Screen	uses a default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no	name is	speci-
       fied, screen prompts for	one. This command was known as `aka' in	previ-
       ous releases.

       truecolor [on|off]

       Enables truecolor support. Currently autodetection of truecolor support
       cannot  be  done	reliably, as such it's left to user to enable. Default
       is off.	Known terminals	that may support it are: iTerm2, Konsole,  st.
       Xterm  includes support for truecolor escapes but converts them back to
       indexed 256 color space.

       unbindall

       Unbind all the bindings.	This can be useful when	screen is used	solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run as a	daemon.	If, for	some reason, it	is necessary to	bind  commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv	var

       Unset an	environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

       Change the encoding used	in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings sent to the window will be UTF-8	encoded	and vice versa.	 Omit-
       ting the	parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is	given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's	 "-U"  option).	 See also "defutf8", which changes the default
       setting of a new	window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the	visual bell setting for	this window.  Omitting	the  parameter
       toggles	the  setting.  If vbell	is switched on,	but your terminal does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the	status
       line  when the bell character (^G) is received.	Visual bell support of
       a terminal is defined by	the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per  default,  vbell  is	 off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also
       `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the	visual bell message. message is	printed	to the status line  if
       the  window  receives  a	bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but
       the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The  default  message  is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".	Without	a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay	 in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message.	The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a  win-
       dow  is	created	 (or  resurrected  from	zombie state). Default is off.
       Without a parameter, the	current	setting	is shown.

       version

       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays.	The message will appear	in the	termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width between 80 and 132 columns or	set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable  terminal
       and  the	 termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".	 See the "termcap" command for
       more information. You can also specify a	new  height  if	 you  want  to
       change  both  values.   The -w option tells screen to leave the display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title	[title]

       Display all windows in a	table for visual window	selection.  If	screen
       was  in a window	group, screen will back	out of the group and then dis-
       play the	windows	in that	group.	If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the	list, so that the cur-
       rent window is also selectable.	The -m option changes the order	of the
       windows,	 instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal
       most-recently-used list.	 The -g	option will show  the  windows	inside
       any groups in that level	and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |k, C-p,	or up	 | Move	up one line.				     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |j, C-n,	or down	 | Move	down one line.				     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |C-g or escape	 | Exit	windowlist.				     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |C-a or home	 | Move	to the first line.			     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |C-e or end	 | Move	to the last line.			     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |C-u or C-d	 | Move	one half page up or down.		     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |C-b or C-f	 | Move	one full page up or down.		     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |0..9		 | Using the number keys, move to the selected line. |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |mouseclick	 | Move	to the selected	line. Available	when "mouse- |
       |		 | track" is set to "on"			     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |/		 | Search.					     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |n		 | Repeat search in the	forward	direction.	     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |N		 | Repeat search in the	backward direction.	     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |m		 | Toggle MRU.					     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |g		 | Toggle group	nesting.			     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |a		 | All window view.				     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |C-h or backspace | Back	out the	group.				     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |,		 | Switch numbers with the previous window.	     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |.		 | Switch numbers with the next	window.		     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |K		 | Kill	that window.				     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       |space or enter	 | Select that window.				     |
       +-----------------+---------------------------------------------------+
       The table format	can be changed with the	string and title  option,  the
       title  is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by using
       the string setting. The default setting is "Num	Name%=Flags"  for  the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more	codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size	of at least 10 characters wide	and  6
       characters high in order	to display.

       windows [ string	]

       Uses  the message line to display a list	of all the windows.  Each win-
       dow is listed by	number with the	name of	process	that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with	a `*';
       the previous window is marked with a `-';  all  the  windows  that  are
       "logged	in"  are  marked  with	a  `$';	 a  background window that has
       received	a bell is marked with a	`!'; a background window that is being
       monitored  and  has  had	activity occur is marked with an `@'; a	window
       which has output	logging	turned on is marked with `(L)';	windows	 occu-
       pied  by	 other	users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state
       are marked with `Z'.  If	this list is too long to fit on	the terminal's
       status  line  only  the portion around the current window is displayed.
       The optional string parameter follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.   If
       string  parameter is passed, the	output size is unlimited.  The default
       command without any parameter is	limited	to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the	line-wrap setting for the current window.  When	 line-wrap  is
       on,  the	second consecutive printable character output at the last col-
       umn of a	line will wrap to the start of	the  following	line.	As  an
       added feature, backspace	(^H) will also wrap through the	left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any	options, the state  of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf	[-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents of	the paste buffer to the	specified file,	or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is	given. This is
       thought	of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding	 is  specified	the  paste  buffer  is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not	all users may be able to write
       to  the	same  window at	once. Per default, writelock is	in `auto' mode
       and grants exclusive input permission to	the user who is	the  first  to
       switch to the particular	window.	When he	leaves the window, other users
       may obtain the writelock	(automatically). The writelock of the  current
       window  is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user	issues
       the command "writelock on" he  keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission
       while switching to other	windows.

       xoff

       xon

       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to	the stdin queue	of the current
       window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands	two  different
       modes  when  it	detects	 a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".	If the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay	all data to the	attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.	In "catch" mode	screen acts as
       a zmodem	endpoint and starts the	corresponding rz/sz commands.  If  the
       mode  is	 set to	"auto",	screen will use	"catch"	if the window is a tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".

       You can define the templates screen uses	in "catch" mode	via the	second
       and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the	window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell)	exits. When a string of	 two  keys  is
       specified  to  the  zombie  command,  `dead' windows will remain	in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a  window.  Pressing
       the first key in	the dead window	has the	same effect. When pressing the
       second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the	 window.  The  process
       that  was initially running in the window will be launched again. Call-
       ing zombie without parameters will clear	the zombie setting, thus  mak-
       ing windows disappear when their	process	exits.

       As  the	zombie-setting	is  manipulated	globally for all windows, this
       command should probably be called defzombie, but	it isn't.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after	the  keys.  This  will
       cause  screen to	monitor	exit status of the process running in the win-
       dow. If it exits	normally ('0'),	the window disappears. Any other  exit
       value causes the	window to become a zombie.

       zombie_timeout[seconds]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the	window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell)	exits.	If  zombie  keys  are  defined
       (compare	with above zombie command), it is possible to also set a time-
       out when	screen tries to	automatically reconnect	a dead screen  window.

THE MESSAGE LINE
       Screen  displays	informational messages and other diagnostics in	a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to	appear at the top of the screen	during
       compilation.  If	your terminal has a status line	defined	in  its	 term-
       cap, screen will	use this for displaying	its messages, otherwise	a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily	interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on	termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning	to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application	running	in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try	something like:

	      echo '<esc>^Hello	world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow,	and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

WINDOW TYPES
       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry	in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window	types are all special cases of
       the normal type.	They have been added in	order to allow	screen	to  be
       used efficiently	as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       The  normal  window  contains	 a  shell (default, if no parameter is
	  given) or any	other system command that could	 be  executed  from  a
	  shell	(e.g.  slogin, etc^|)

       If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
	  ified	as the first parameter,	then the window	is directly  connected
	  to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
	  /dev/ttya".  Read and	write access is	required on the	 device	 node,
	  an  exclusive	 open  is attempted on the node	to mark	the connection
	  line as busy.	 An optional parameter	is  allowed  consisting	 of  a
	  comma	separated list of flags	in the notation	used by	stty(1):

	  <baud_rate>
		 Usually  300,	1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
		 as well as receive speed.

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software	 flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
		 for sending data.

	  ixoff	or -ixoff
		 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving
		 data.

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received	byte.

	  You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as  applicable.
	  Unspecified options cause the	terminal driver	to make	up the parame-
	  ter values of	the connection.	 These values are system dependent and
	  may be in defaults or	values saved from a previous connection.

	  For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
	  lines	in the status line. These may  include	`RTS',	`CTS',	'DTR',
	  `DSR',  `CD'	and more.  This	depends	on the available ioctl()'s and
	  system header	files as well as the on	the physical  capabilities  of
	  the  serial  board.	Signals	 that  are logical low (inactive) have
	  their	name preceded by an exclamation	mark (!), otherwise the	signal
	  is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
	  available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

	  When the CLOCAL status bit is	true, the whole	set of	modem  signals
	  is  placed inside curly braces ({ and	}).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
	  SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'	or `CD'	are shown in parenthe-
	  sis, respectively.

	  For tty windows, the command break causes the	Data transmission line
	  (TxD)	to go low for a	specified period of time. This is expected  to
	  be  interpreted  as break signal on the other	side.  No data is sent
	  and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       If the first	parameter  is  "//telnet",  the	 second	 parameter  is
	  expected  to	be  a  host  name, and an optional third parameter may
	  specify a TCP	port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
	  to a server listening	on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
	  to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about	the connection
       in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	      b	     BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

	      e	     ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	      c	     SGA.  The	connection  is	in  `character mode' (default:
		     `line mode').

	      t	     TTYPE. The	terminal type has been requested by the	remote
		     host.   Screen  sends the name "screen" unless instructed
		     otherwise (see also the command `term').

	      w	     NAWS. The remote  site  is	 notified  about  window  size
		     changes.

	      f	     LFLOW.  The  remote  host will send flow control informa-
		     tion.  (Ignored at	the moment.)

	      Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC,	TSPEED
	      and NEWENV).

	      For  telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC
	      BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote	host.

	      This window type is only available if screen was	compiled  with
	      the ENABLE_TELNET	option defined.

STRING ESCAPES
       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one  exception:	inside	of  a  window's	hardstatus '^%'	('^E') is used
       instead.

       Here is the full	list of	supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of  the  various
	      flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has	the focus

       h      hardstatus of the	window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other	users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier:	up to the cur-
	      rent window; with	'+' qualifier: starting	with the window	 after
	      the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in	this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?'	is displayed  only  if	a  '%'	escape
	      inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part	of '%?'

       =      pad  the	string to the display's	width (like TeX's hfill). If a
	      number is	specified, pad	to  the	 percentage  of	 the  window's
	      width.   A  '0'  qualifier  tells	 screen	to treat the number as
	      absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
	      absolute	pad position by	adding a '+' qualifier or to pad rela-
	      tive to the right	margin by using	'-'. The padding truncates the
	      string  if  the specified	position lies before the current posi-
	      tion. Add	the 'L'	qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
	      screen  needs  to	do truncation, it tries	to do it in a way that
	      the marked position gets moved to	the  specified	percentage  of
	      the  output  area.  (The	area starts from the last absolute pad
	      position and ends	with the position specified by the  truncation
	      operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
	      parts with '^|'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the	next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The	length
	      qualifier	is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'	 and 'C' escape	may be qualified with a	'0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as	fill character.	The '0'	qualifier  also	 makes
       the  '='	 escape	use absolute positions.	The 'n'	and '='	escapes	under-
       stand a length qualifier	(e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L'  to	generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change	the attributes or  the
       color  settings.	 Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip-
       tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type	 indi-
       cator  if  it  can  be confused with a color description. The following
       change types are	known:

       +      add the specified	set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in	the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded	either as a hexadecimal	number or two letters specify-
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors	are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized	 versions of the letter	specify	bright colors. You can
       also use	the pseudo-color 'i' to	set just the brightness	and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is	treated	as foreground or back-
       ground color dependent on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground	color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color	with a ".". If	you  want  the
       same  behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the	color-
       change stack).

       Examples:

       "G"    set color	to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all	attributes, write in default  color  on	 yellow	 back-
	      ground.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
	      cated to the available width. The	current	 window	 is  displayed
	      white  on	 blue.	 This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast-
	      line".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The window number	and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
	      is  set.	Also use a red background if this is the active	focus.
	      Useful for "caption string".

FLOW-CONTROL
       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the	XON and	XOFF characters	(and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off,	screen ignores the XON and XOFF	 char-
       acters,	which  allows  the user	to send	them to	the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs	editor,	 for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take	longer for output from a "normal" pro-
       gram to pause in	response to an XOFF.  With flow-control	turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used	to immediately pause the output	of the
       current window.	You can	still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program,	but you	must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon)	and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful	for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow"	.screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic	flow-switching.	 It can	then be	 toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on',	'fixed off' and	'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound	to "C-a	f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT	mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT,	screen tries to	find out the right mode	based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when	it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate	 flow-
       control manually	when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and	find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not	interrupt  the	display	 until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).	This causes the	output
       that screen has accumulated from	the interrupted	program	to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the	virtual	terminal's memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which	in rare	cases can cause	 minor
       inaccuracies  in	 the  output.	For example, if	you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version  of
       the  output  you	would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.	 Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
       it  off	automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to	interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal	when flow-con-
       trol is enabled.	 If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l"	will restore it.  Give each mode a try,	and use	whichever mode
       you find	more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of	the title com-
       mands.  Normally	the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However,	it is sometimes	useful to dis-
       tinguish	various	programs of the	same name or to	change	the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name	for all	shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc	file, while all	other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with	the -t option.
       Interactively,	 there	  is	the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a	A).  The former	can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,	 and  the  latter  will	prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with	the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting. Changing title	bythis escape sequence
       can be controlled by defdynamictitle and	dynamictitle commands.

       Finally,	screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by  set-
       ting  the  window's  name to "search|name" and arranging	to have	a null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion  specifies	an end-of-prompt search	string,	while the name portion
       specifies the default shell name	for the	window.	 If the	name ends in a
       `:'  screen will	add what it believes to	be the current command running
       in the window to	the end	of the window's	shell name (e.g.  "name:cmd").
       Otherwise  the  current command name supersedes the shell name while it
       is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell	 prompt	 to  output  a
       null  title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as	a part of your prompt.
       The last	part of	your prompt must be the	same as	the string you	speci-
       fied  for the search portion of the title.  Once	this is	set up,	screen
       will use	the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous	 command  name
       and  get	 ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received
       from the	shell, a search	is made	for the	end of the prompt.  If	found,
       it  will	grab the first word after the matched string and use it	as the
       command name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or  '^'
       screen  will  use  the  first  word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This	helps  csh  users  get	better
       command names when using	job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

	      screen -t	top 2 nice top

       Adding  this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d	version	of the
       "top" command in	window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

			shelltitle '> |csh'
			screen 1

       These commands would start a shell  with	 the  given  shelltitle.   The
       title  specified	 is an auto-title that would expect the	prompt and the
       typed command to	look something like the	following:

	      /usr/joe/src/dir>	trn

       (it looks after the '> '	for the	 command  name).   The	window	status
       would  show the name "trn" while	the command was	running, and revert to
       "csh" upon completion.

	      bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind	the key	sequence  "C-a
       R"  to the "su" command and give	it an auto-title name of "root:".  For
       this auto-title to work,	the screen could look something	like this:

			% !em
			emacs file.c

       Here the	user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the	previ-
       ously   entered	 "emacs"   command.   The  window  status  would  show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the	command, and revert to	simply
       "root:" at its completion.

			bind o title
			bind E title ""
			bind u title (unknown)

       The  first  binding  doesn't have any arguments,	so it would prompt you
       for a title. when you type "C-a o".  The	second binding would clear  an
       auto-title's  current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set the
       current window's	title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null  title-escape-sequence  to
       your  prompt  is	that some shells (like the csh)	count all the non-con-
       trol characters as part of the prompt's	length.	  If  these  invisible
       characters  aren't  a  multiple	of  8 then backspacing over a tab will
       result in an incorrect display.	One way	to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

	      set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not	 only normalizes the character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters  up	 to  8.	  Bash	users  will  probably  want to echo the	escape
       sequence	in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

	      PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output	a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

THE VIRTUAL TERMINAL
       Each window in a	screen session emulates	a VT100	 terminal,  with  some
       extra  functions	added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI  standard  as
       possible.  But  if your terminal	lacks certain capabilities, the	emula-
       tion may	not be complete. In these cases	screen has to tell the	appli-
       cations	that  some  of the features are	missing. This is no problem on
       machines	using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo	this method fails. Because of this, screen  offers  a  way  to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named	"screen.<term>", where <term> is the  contents
       of your $TERM variable.	If no such entry exists, screen	tries "screen"
       (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols	or  more)).   If  even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a	substitute.

       The idea	is that	if you have a terminal which doesn't support an	impor-
       tant feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you  can	 build	a  new
       termcap/terminfo	 entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which
       this capability has been	disabled. If this entry	is installed  on  your
       machines	 you  are able to do a rlogin and still	keep the correct term-
       cap/terminfo entry.  The	terminal name is put in	the $TERM variable  of
       all new windows.	 Screen	also sets the $TERMCAP variable	reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines	using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to	the window number of each win-
       dow.

       The  actual  set	 of  capabilities  supported  by  the virtual terminal
       depends on the capabilities supported by	the  physical  terminal.   If,
       for  instance,  the physical terminal does not support underscore mode,
       screen does not put the `us' and	`ue' capabilities  into	 the  window's
       $TERMCAP	variable, accordingly.	However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties must be supported by a terminal in order  to  run  screen;	namely
       scrolling,  clear  screen,  and	direct cursor addressing (in addition,
       screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on	terminals  that	 over-
       strike).

       Also,  you can customize	the $TERMCAP value used	by screen by using the
       "termcap" .screenrc command, or by  defining  the  variable  $SCREENCAP
       prior to	startup.  When the is latter defined, its value	will be	copied
       verbatim	into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can	either be  the
       full  terminal  definition,  or	a filename where the terminal "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen	honors the "terminfo" .screenrc	command	if the	system
       uses the	terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When  the  boolean  `G0'	capability is present in the termcap entry for
       the terminal on which screen has	been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple	character sets.	 This allows an	application to
       make use	of, for	instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.	The following control functions	from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported: lock shift G0 (SI), lock	shift G1 (SO),	lock  shift  G2,  lock
       shift  G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.	 When a	virtual	termi-
       nal is created or reset,	the ASCII character set	is  designated	as  G0
       through	G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0',	and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence  the
       terminal	 uses  to  enable  and start the graphics character set	rather
       than SI.	 `E0' is the corresponding replacement for SO.	`C0'  gives  a
       character  by  character	 translation  string that is used during semi-
       graphics	mode. This string is built like	the `acsc'  terminfo  capabil-
       ity.

       When the	`po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap entry, applications running in a screen window can send  output  to
       the printer port	of the terminal.  This allows a	user to	have an	appli-
       cation in one window sending output to a	printer	connected to the  ter-
       minal,  while  all  other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each  chunk  of  output).	  As  a	 side-
       effect,	programs  running  in different	windows	can send output	to the
       printer simultaneously.	Data sent to the printer is not	 displayed  in
       the window.  The	info command displays a	line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains	a hardstatus line for every window. If a  window  gets
       selected,  the  display's  hardstatus will be updated to	match the win-
       dow's hardstatus	line. If the display has no hardstatus the  line  will
       be  displayed as	a standard screen message.  The	hardstatus line	can be
       changed	 with	the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command	(APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\".  As	a  convenience	for  xterm  users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is	also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP	variable of  the  vir-
       tual  terminal  if  they	can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.  For instance,	`dl' (delete line) is only put into the	$TERM-
       CAP  variable  if  the  terminal	 supports either delete	line itself or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion,	when the  ses-
       sion  is	 reattached  on	a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not	enabled	by default.   Set  the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of control sequences recognized by screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate	VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset	to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p			  Cursor Visibility (97801)

				  Pn = 6		     Invisible

				  Pn = 7		     Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String	(Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device  Control  String.   Outputs  a	string
				  directly to the host terminal	without	inter-
				  pretation.

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string	^G   (A)  Operating  System Command (Hardstatus, xterm
				  title	hack)

       ESC ] 83	; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only  works  if
				  multi-user  support is compiled into screen.
				  The pseudo-user ":window:" is	used to	 check
				  the  access  control list. Use "addacl :win-
				  dow: -rwx #?"	 to  create  a	user  with  no
				  rights and allow only	the needed commands.

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1	(SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0	(SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn H		  Direct Cursor	Addressing

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	J		  Erase	in Display

				  Pn = None or 0	     From   Cursor  to
							     End of Screen

				  Pn = 1		     From Beginning of
							     Screen to Cursor

				  Pn = 2		     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn	K		  Erase	in Line

				  Pn = None or 0	     From   Cursor  to
							     End of Line

				  Pn = 1		     From Beginning of
							     Line to Cursor

				  Pn = 2		     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn	X		  Erase	character

       ESC [ Pn	A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn	B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn	C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn	D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn	E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn	F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn	G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn	`		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps	;^|; Ps	m	  Select Graphic Rendition

				  Ps = None or 0	     Default Rendition

				  Ps = 1		     Bold

				  Ps = 2		(A)  Faint

				  Ps = 3		(A)  Standout	  Mode
							     (ANSI:	Itali-
							     cized)

				  Ps = 4		     Underlined

				  Ps = 5		     Blinking

				  Ps = 7		     Negative Image

				  Ps = 22		(A)  Normal Intensity

				  Ps = 23		(A)  Standout Mode off
							     (ANSI: Italicized
							     off)

				  Ps = 24		(A)  Not Underlined

				  Ps = 25		(A)  Not Blinking

				  Ps = 27		(A)  Positive Image

				  Ps = 30		(A)  Foreground	Black

				  Ps = 31		(A)  Foreground	Red

				  Ps = 32		(A)  Foreground	Green

				  Ps = 33		(A)  Foreground	Yellow

				  Ps = 34		(A)  Foreground	Blue

				  Ps = 35		(A)  Foreground
							     Magenta

				  Ps = 36		(A)  Foreground	Cyan

				  Ps = 37		(A)  Foreground	White

				  Ps = 39		(A)  Foreground
							     Default

				  Ps = 40		(A)  Background	Black

				  Ps = ^a|		     ^|

				  Ps = 49		(A)  Background
							     Default

       ESC [ Pn	g		  Tab Clear

				  Pn = None or 0	     Clear Tab at Cur-
							     rent Position

				  Pn = 3		     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling	Region

       ESC [ Pn	I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn	Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn	L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn	M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn	@	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn	P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn	S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn	T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn	^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps	;^|; Ps	h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps	;^|; Ps	l	  Reset	Mode

				  Ps = 4		(A)  Insert Mode

				  Ps = 20		(A)  Automatic	 Line-
							     feed Mode

				  Ps = 34		     Normal	Cursor
							     Visibility

				  Ps = ?1		(V)  Application  Cur-
							     sor Keys

				  Ps = ?3		(V)  Change   Terminal
							     Width to 132 col-
							     umns

				  Ps = ?5		(V)  Reverse Video

				  Ps = ?6		(V)  Origin Mode

				  Ps = ?7		(V)  Wrap Mode

				  Ps = ?9		     X10 mouse	track-
							     ing

				  Ps = ?25		(V)  Visible Cursor

				  Ps = ?47		     Alternate	Screen
							     (old xterm	code)

				  Ps = ?1000		(V)  VT200	 mouse
							     tracking

				  Ps = ?1047		     Alternate	Screen
							     (new xterm	code)

				  Ps = ?1049		     Alternate	Screen
							     (new xterm	code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start	relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to	printer	(ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize  the  window  to  `Ph'	lines and `Pw'
				  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal	Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send	VT220  Secondary   Device   Attributes
				  String

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

INPUT TRANSLATION
       In  order  to  do  a  full  VT100 emulation screen has to detect	that a
       sequence	of characters in the input stream was generated	by a  keypress
       on  the	user's	keyboard  and  insert the VT100	style escape sequence.
       Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it  possible  to
       map  arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For stan-
       dard VT100 emulation the	command	will always insert  a  string  in  the
       input  buffer  of the window (see also command stuff in the command ta-
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can	change after a
       reattach	 from  a  different terminal type, it is possible to bind com-
       mands to	the termcap name of the	keys.  Screen will insert the  correct
       binding	after  each  reattach.	See  the  bindkey  command for further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the	default	key bindings. The fourth is what  com-
       mand is executed	if the keyboard	is switched into application mode.

       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Key name	| Termcap name | Command  | App	mode |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Cursor up	| ku	       | \033[A	  | \033OA   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Cursor down	| kd	       | \033[B	  | \033OB   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Cursor right	| kr	       | \033[C	  | \033OC   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Cursor left	| kl	       | \033[D	  | \033OD   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 0	| k0	       | \033[10~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 1	| k1	       | \033OP	  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 2	| k2	       | \033OQ	  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 3	| k3	       | \033OR	  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 4	| k4	       | \033OS	  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 5	| k5	       | \033[15~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 6	| k6	       | \033[17~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 7	| k7	       | \033[18~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 8	| k8	       | \033[19~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 9	| k9	       | \033[20~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 10	| k;	       | \033[21~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 11	| F1	       | \033[23~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Function key 12	| F2	       | \033[24~ |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Home		| kh	       | \033[1~  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |End		| kH	       | \033[4~  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Insert		| kI	       | \033[2~  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Delete		| kD	       | \033[3~  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Page up		| kP	       | \033[5~  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Page down	| kN	       | \033[6~  |	     |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 0	| f0	       | 0	  | \033Op   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 1	| f1	       | 1	  | \033Oq   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 2	| f2	       | 2	  | \033Or   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 3	| f3	       | 3	  | \033Os   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 4	| f4	       | 4	  | \033Ot   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 5	| f5	       | 5	  | \033Ou   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 6	| f6	       | 6	  | \033Ov   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 7	| f7	       | 7	  | \033Ow   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 8	| f8	       | 8	  | \033Ox   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad 9	| f9	       | 9	  | \033Oy   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad +	| f+	       | +	  | \033Ok   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad -	| f-	       | -	  | \033Om   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad *	| f*	       | *	  | \033Oj   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad /	| f/	       | /	  | \033Oo   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad =	| fq	       +----------+ \033OX   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad .	| f.	       | .	  | \033On   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad ,	| f,	       | ,	  | \033Ol   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+
       |Keypad enter	| fe	       | \015	  | \033OM   |
       +----------------+--------------+----------+----------+

SPECIAL	TERMINAL CAPABILITIES
       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are	recog-
       nized by	screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.   You  can	 place
       these  capabilities  in your termcap entries (in	`/etc/termcap')	or use
       them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and	`termcapinfo' in  your
       screenrc	files. It is often not possible	to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
		    that  this	capability is obsolete because screen uses the
		    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132	columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has	the desired width  and
		    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal  doesn't need flow	control. Send ^S and ^Q	direct
		    to the application.	Same as	'flow off'.  The  opposite  of
		    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal  can deal with ISO	2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0'	to the specified charset.  Default  is
		    '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' back to standard charset. Default is
		    '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use	the string as a	conversion table for font '0'. See the
		    'ac' capability for	more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn  on  autonuke.	 See  the  'autonuke' command for more
		    details.

       OL   (num)   Set	the output buffer limit. See the  'obuflimit'  command
		    for	more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set	 the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' com-
		    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground	color in an ANSI conform  way.
		    This  capability  will  almost  always be set to '\E[3%dm'
		    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background	color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default  fg/bg  color  (\E[39m  /
		    \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe  a	translation of characters to strings depending
		    on the current font. More details follow in	the next  sec-
		    tion.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal  understands  special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse
		    tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold	to display high-intensity colors (e.g.
		    Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add	 missing  capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set
		    by default).

CHARACTER TRANSLATION
       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate  characters	 to  arbitrary
       strings depending on the	current	font and terminal type.	 Use this fea-
       ture if you want	to work	with a	common	standard  character  set  (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font	pages.

       Syntax:
	   XC=<charset-mapping>{,,<charset-mapping>}
	   <charset-mapping> :=	<designator><template>{,<mapping>}
	   <mapping> :=	<char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may	be repeated any	number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen	how to map characters in font  <desig-
       nator>  ('B':  Ascii,  'A':  UK,	 'K': German, etc.)  to	strings. Every
       <mapping> describes to what string a single character  will  be	trans-
       lated. A	template mechanism is used, as most of the time	the codes have
       a lot in	common (for example strings to	switch	to  and	 from  another
       charset).  Each	occurrence  of '%' in <template> gets substituted with
       the <template-arg> specified  together  with  the  character.  If  your
       strings	are  not  similar at all, then use '%' as a template and place
       the full	string in <template-arg>. A quoting  mechanism	was  added  to
       make  it	 possible to use a real	'%'. The '\' character quotes the spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

	   termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to	translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B')  upper  case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a	German charset.	'\304'
       gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note	that  this  line  gets
       parsed  *three* times before the	internal lookup	table is built,	there-
       fore a lot of quoting is	needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to  allow  more  emulation:	If  a  mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the	terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case  the template is assumed to	be just	'%' because the	charset	switch
       sequence	and the	character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

	   termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K')	charset	is emulated on an  xterm.   If
       screen  has  to	change	to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will	be sent	to the
       terminal, i.e. the ASCII	charset	is used	instead. The template is  just
       '%',  so	 the mapping is	straightforward: '[' to	'\304',	'\' to '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS	      Number of	columns	on  the	 terminal  (overrides  termcap
		      entry).
       HOME	      Directory	in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES	      Number  of  lines	 on  the  terminal  (overrides termcap
		      entry).
       LOCKPRG	      Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH	      Used for locating	programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a	terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate	socket directory.
       SCREENRC	      Alternate	user screenrc file.
       SHELL	      Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
		      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY	      Alternate	socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate	system screenrc	file.
       TERM	      Terminal name.
       TERMCAP	      Terminal description.
       WINDOW	      Window number of a window	(at creation time).

FILES
       ^|/screen-4.?.??/etc/screenrc
       ^|/screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc	 Examples  in  the screen distribution
					 package for private and  global  ini-
					 tialization files.
       $SYSSCREENRC
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc		 screen	initialization commands
       $SCREENRC
       $HOME/.screenrc			 Read in after /usr/local/etc/screenrc
       $SCREENDIR/S-<login>
       /local/screens/S-<login>		 Socket	directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>	 Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap	 Written by the	"termcap" output func-
					 tion
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange	 or
       /tmp/screen-exchange		 screen	  `interprocess	 communication
					 buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]			 Screen	images created by the hardcopy
					 function
       screenlog.[0-9]			 Output	 log  files created by the log
					 function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*		 or
       /etc/termcap			 Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp			 Login records
       $LOCKPRG				 Program that locks a terminal.

SEE ALSO
       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

AUTHORS
       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long	 time  maintained  and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder,	Micah Cowan and	Sadrul
       Habib Chowdhury.	This latest version was	produced by Amadeusz Slawinski
       <[email protected]>   and	  Alexander   Naumov   <[email protected]
       suse.org>.

COPYLEFT
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
	    Juergen Weigert <[email protected]>
	    Alexander Naumov <[email protected]>
	    Amadeusz Slawinski <[email protected]>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
	    Juergen Weigert <[email protected]>
	    Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <[email protected]>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
	    Juergen Weigert <[email protected]>
	    Michael Schroeder <[email protected]>
	    Micah Cowan	<[email protected]>
	    Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <[email protected]>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
	    Juergen Weigert <[email protected]>
	    Michael Schroeder <[email protected]>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the	GNU General Public License as published	by the
       Free Software Foundation; either	version	3, or  (at  your  option)  any
       later version.
       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that	it will	be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;  without	even  the  implied  warranty  of  MER-
       CHANTABILITY  or	FITNESS	FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  this  program  (see  the file COPYING); if	not, write to the Free
       Software	Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place  -  Suite  330,  Boston,  MA
       02111-1307, USA

CONTRIBUTORS
       Eric S. Raymond <[email protected]>,
       Thomas Renninger	<[email protected]>,
       Axel Beckert <[email protected]>,
       Ken Beal	<[email protected]>,
       Rudolf Koenig <[email protected]>,
       Toerless	Eckert <[email protected]>,
       Wayne Davison <[email protected]>,
       Patrick Wolfe <[email protected], kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <[email protected]>,
       Nathan Glasser <[email protected]>,
       Larry W.	Virden <[email protected]>,
       Howard Chu <[email protected]>,
       Tim MacKenzie <[email protected]>,
       Markku Jarvinen <[email protected]{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi>,
       Marc Boucher <[email protected]>,
       Doug Siebert <[email protected]>,
       Ken Stillson <[email protected]>,
       Ian Frechett <[email protected]>,
       Brian Koehmstedt	<[email protected]>,
       Don Smith <[email protected]>,
       Frank van der Linden <[email protected]>,
       Martin Schweikert <[email protected]>,
       David Vrona <[email protected]>,
       E. Tye McQueen <tye%[email protected]>,
       Matthew Green <[email protected]>,
       Christopher Williams <[email protected]>,
       Matt Mosley <[email protected]>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <[email protected]>,
       Johannes	Zellner	<[email protected]>,
       Pablo Averbuj <[email protected]>.

AVAILABILITY
       The  latest official release of screen available	via anonymous ftp from
       ftp.gnu.org/gnu/screen/ or any other GNU	distribution  site.  The  home
       site  of	 screen	 is  savannah.gnu.org/projects/screen/.	If you want to
       help, send a note to [email protected]

BUGS
       `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not	handled	 correctly  (they  are
	  ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       Screen has no	clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
	  this is the only area	where vttest is	allowed	to fail.

       It is	not possible to	change the environment variable	$TERMCAP  when
	  reattaching under a different	terminal type.

       The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
	  capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have	any effects.

       Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
	  in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of	the tty	device
	  file for each	window.	 Special permission may	also  be  required  to
	  write	the file "/etc/utmp".

       Entries  in  "/etc/utmp"  are	not removed when screen	is killed with
	  SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs  (like  "w"  or  "rwho")  to
	  advertise that a user	is logged on who really	isn't.

       Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically	detach
	  (or quit) unless the device driver is	configured to  send  a	HANGUP
	  signal.   To	detach	a screen session use the -D or -d command line
	  option.

       If a password	is set,	the command  line  options  -d	and  -D	 still
	  detach a session without asking.

       Both	"breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
	  method used by all terminal devices. The first should	change a  win-
	  dow  specific	 setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
	  default for new windows.

       When attaching to a multiuser	session, the user's .screenrc file  is
	  not  sourced.	 Each  user's personal settings	have to	be included in
	  the .screenrc	file from which	the session is booted, or have	to  be
	  changed manually.

       A weird imagination is most useful to	gain full advantage of all the
	  features.

       Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza
	  to [email protected].

4th Berkeley Distribution	   Oct 2017			     SCREEN(1)
Command Section