Command Section
MAKEFS(8)               FreeBSD System Manager's Manual              MAKEFS(8)

     makefs - create a file system image from a directory tree or a mtree

     makefs [-DxZ] [-B endian] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask]
            [-F mtree-specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size]
            [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-o fs-options]
            [-R roundup-size] [-S sector-size] [-s image-size] [-T timestamp]
            [-t fs-type] image-file directory | manifest [extra-directory ...]

     The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the
     directory tree directory or from the mtree manifest manifest.  If any
     optional directory trees are passed in the extra-directory arguments,
     then the directory tree of each argument will be merged into the
     directory or manifest first before creating image-file.  No special
     devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

     The options are as follows:

     -B endian
           Set the byte order of the image to endian.  Valid byte orders are
           `4321', `big', or `be' for big endian, and `1234', `little', or
           `le' for little endian.  Some file systems may have a fixed byte
           order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -b free-blocks
           Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the
           image.  An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -D    Treat duplicate paths in an mtree manifest as warnings not error.

     -d debug-mask
           Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are
           set in debug-mask.  XXX: document these

     -F mtree-specfile
           This is almost certainly not the option you are looking for. To
           create an image from a list of files in an mtree format manifest,
           specify it as the last argument on the commandline, not as a the
           argument to -F.

           Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) `specfile' specification.  This
           option has no effect when the image is created from a mtree
           manifest rather than a directory.

           If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its
           permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically
           overridden by the specfile.  An error will be raised if the type of
           entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

           In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry
           in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the
           specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored.
           Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is
           necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the
           specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, and link (in
           the case of symbolic links).  If time isn't provided, the current
           time will be used.  If flags isn't provided, the current file flags
           will be used.  Missing regular file entries will be created as
           zero-length files.

     -f free-files
           Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in
           the image.  An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -M minimum-size
           Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.

     -m maximum-size
           Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size.  An
           error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger
           than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.

     -N userdb-dir
           Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
           text file group from userdb-dir, rather than using the results from
           the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library

     -o fs-options
           Set file system specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated
           list of options.  Valid file system specific options are detailed

     -p    Deprecated.  See the -Z flag.

     -R roundup-size
           Round the image up to roundup-size.  roundup-size should be a
           multiple of the file system block size.  This option only applies
           to the ffs file system type.

     -S sector-size
           Set the file system sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to 512.

     -s image-size
           Set the size of the file system image to image-size.

     -T timestamp
           Specify a timestamp to be set for all filesystem files and
           directories created so that repeatable builds are possible.  The
           timestamp can be a pathname, where the timestamps are derived from
           that file, or an integer value interpreted as the number of seconds
           from the Epoch.  Note that timestamps specified in an mtree(5) spec
           file, override the default timestamp.

     -t fs-type
           Create an fs-type file system image.  The following file system
           types are supported:

                 ffs     BSD fast file system (default).

                 cd9660  ISO 9660 file system.

     -x    Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.

     -Z    Create a sparse file for ffs.  This is useful for virtual machine

     Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected.  Two or
     more numbers may be separated by an ``x'' to indicate a product.  Each
     number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
           b    Block; multiply by 512
           k    Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
           m    Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
           g    Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
           t    Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
           w    Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific options
     ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

           avgfilesize   Expected average file size.
           avgfpdir      Expected number of files per directory.
           bsize         Block size.
           density       Bytes per inode.
           fsize         Fragment size.
           label         Label name of the image.
           maxbpg        Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
           minfree       Minimum % free.
           optimization  Optimization preference; one of `space' or `time'.
           extent        Maximum extent size.
           maxbpcg       Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
           version       UFS version.  1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

   CD9660-specific options
     cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be
     provided.  The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal
     sign (`='), and a value.  The following keywords are supported:

           allow-deep-trees      Allow the directory structure to exceed the
                                 maximum specified in the spec.
           allow-illegal-chars   Allow illegal characters in filenames. This
                                 option is not implemented.
           allow-lowercase       Allow lowercase characters in filenames. This
                                 option is not implemented.
           allow-max-name        Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for
                                 filenames by omitting the version id.
           allow-multidot        Allow multiple dots in a filename.
           applicationid         Application ID of the image.
           archimedes            Use the `ARCHIMEDES' extension to encode RISC
                                 OS metadata.
           bootimagedir          Boot image directory. This option is not
           chrp-boot             Write an MBR partition table to the image to
                                 allow older CHRP hardware to boot.
           boot-load-segment     Set load segment for the boot image.
           bootimage             Filename of a boot image in the format
                                 ``sysid;filename'', where ``sysid'' is one of
                                 `i386', `mac68k', `macppc', or `powerpc'.
           generic-bootimage     Load a generic boot image into the first 32K
                                 of the cd9660 image.
           hard-disk-boot        Boot image is a hard disk image.
           isolevel              An integer representing the ISO 9660
                                 interchange level where ``level'' is either
                                 `1' or `2'.  ``level'' `3' is not
           keep-bad-images       Do not discard images whose write was aborted
                                 due to an error.  For debugging purposes.
           label                 Label name of the image.
           no-boot               Boot image is not bootable.
           no-emul-boot          Boot image is a ``no emulation'' ElTorito
           no-trailing-padding   Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs
                                 the padding).
           omit-trailing-period  Omit trailing periods in filenames.
           preparer              Preparer ID of the image.
           publisher             Publisher ID of the image.
           rockridge             Use RockRidge extensions (for longer
                                 filenames, etc.).
           verbose               Turns on verbose output.
           volumeid              Volume set identifier of the image.

     mtree(5), mtree(8), newfs(8)

     The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     Luke Mewburn <[email protected]> (original program),
     Daniel Watt,
     Walter Deignan,
     Ryan Gabrys,
     Alan Perez-Rathke,
     Ram Vedam (cd9660 support)

FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4          April 6, 2017         FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4
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