Command Section
INSTALL(1)              FreeBSD General Commands Manual             INSTALL(1)

     install - install binaries

     install [-bCcpSsUv] [-B suffix] [-D destdir] [-f flags] [-g group]
             [-h hash] [-l linkflags] [-M metalog] [-m mode] [-N dbdir]
             [-o owner] [-T tags] file1 file2
     install [-bCcpSsUv] [-B suffix] [-D destdir] [-f flags] [-g group]
             [-h hash] [-l linkflags] [-M metalog] [-m mode] [-N dbdir]
             [-o owner] [-T tags] file1 ... fileN directory
     install -d [-Uv] [-D destdir] [-g group] [-h hash] [-M metalog] [-m mode]
             [-N dbdir] [-o owner] [-T tags] directory ...

     The file(s) are copied (or linked if the -l option is specified) to the
     target file or directory.  If the destination is a directory, then the
     file is copied into directory with its original filename.  If the target
     file already exists, it is either renamed to file.old if the -b option is
     given or overwritten if permissions allow.  An alternate backup suffix
     may be specified via the -B option's argument.

     The options are as follows:

     -b      Back up any existing files before overwriting them by renaming
             them to file.old.  See -B for specifying a different backup

     -B suffix
             Use suffix as the backup suffix if -b is given.

     -C      Copy the file.  If the target file already exists and the files
             are the same, then do not change the modification time of the
             target.  If the target's file flags and mode need not to be
             changed, the target's inode change time is also unchanged.

     -c      Copy the file.  This is actually the default.  The -c option is
             only included for backwards compatibility.

     -D destdir
             Specify the DESTDIR (top of the file hierarchy) that the items
             are installed in to.  If -M metalog is in use, a leading string
             of ``destdir'' will be removed from the file names logged to the
             metalog.  This option does not affect where the actual files are

     -d      Create directories.  Missing parent directories are created as

     -f      Specify the target's file flags; see chflags(1) for a list of
             possible flags and their meanings.

     -g      Specify a group.  A numeric GID is allowed.

     -h hash
             When copying, calculate the digest of the files with hash to
             store in the -M metalog.  When -d is given no hash is emitted.
             Supported digests:

                   none    No hash.  This is the default.

                   md5     The MD5 cryptographic message digest.

                   rmd160  The RMD-160 cryptographic message digest.

                   sha1    The SHA-1 cryptographic message digest.

                   sha256  The 256-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of
                           the file.

                   sha512  The 512-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of
                           the file.

     -l linkflags
             Instead of copying the file make a link to the source.  The type
             of the link is determined by the linkflags argument.  Valid
             linkflags are: a (absolute), r (relative), h (hard), s
             (symbolic), m (mixed).  Absolute and relative have effect only
             for symbolic links.  Mixed links are hard links for files on the
             same filesystem, symbolic otherwise.

     -M metalog
             Write the metadata associated with each item installed to metalog
             in an mtree(8) ``full path'' specification line.  The metadata
             includes: the file name and file type, and depending upon other
             options, the owner, group, file flags, modification time, and

     -m      Specify an alternate mode.  The default mode is set to rwxr-xr-x
             (0755).  The specified mode may be either an octal or symbolic
             value; see chmod(1) for a description of possible mode values.

     -N      Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
             text file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from
             the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library

     -o      Specify an owner.  A numeric UID is allowed.

     -p      Preserve the access and modification times.  Copy the file, as if
             the -C (compare and copy) option is specified, except if the
             target file does not already exist or is different, then preserve
             the access and modification times of the source file.

     -S      Safe copy.  Normally, install unlinks an existing target before
             installing the new file.  With the -S flag a temporary file is
             used and then renamed to be the target.  The reason this is safer
             is that if the copy or rename fails, the existing target is left

     -s      install exec's the command strip(1) to strip binaries so that
             install can be portable over a large number of systems and binary
             types.  See below for how install can be instructed to use
             another program to strip binaries.

     -T tags
             Specify the mtree(8) tags to write out for the file when using -M

     -U      Indicate that install is running unprivileged, and that it should
             not try to change the owner, the group, or the file flags of the
             destination.  The information that would have been updated can be
             stored in a log file with -M metalog.

     -v      Cause install to be verbose, showing files as they are installed
             or backed up.

     By default, install preserves all file flags, with the exception of the
     ``nodump'' flag.

     The install utility attempts to prevent moving a file onto itself.

     Installing /dev/null creates an empty file.

     The install utility checks for the presence of the STRIPBIN environment
     variable and if present, uses the assigned value as the program to run if
     and when the -s option has been specified.

     If the DONTSTRIP environment variable is present, install will ignore any
     specification of the -s option.  This is mainly for use in debugging the
     FreeBSD Ports Collection.

     [email protected]      If either -S option is specified, or the -C or -p option is
                   used in conjunction with the -s option, temporary files
                   named [email protected], where XXXX is decided by mkstemp(3), are
                   created in the target directory.

     The install utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     Historically install moved files by default.  The default was changed to
     copy in FreeBSD 4.4.

     chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cp(1), mv(1), strip(1), mmap(2),
     getgrnam(3), getpwnam(3), chown(8)

     The install utility appeared in 4.2BSD.

     The meaning of the -M option has changed as of FreeBSD 9.2 and it now
     takes an argument.  Command lines that used the old -M will get an error
     or in rare cases will append logs to the first of multiple source files
     rather than installing it.

     Temporary files may be left in the target directory if install exits

     File flags cannot be set by fchflags(2) over a NFS file system.  Other
     file systems do not have a concept of flags.  The install utility will
     only warn when flags could not be set on a file system that does not
     support them.

     The install utility with -v falsely says a file is copied when -C snaps
     hard links.

FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4        January 18, 2013        FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4
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