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HIER(7)            FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual            HIER(7)

     hier - layout of file systems

     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /          root directory of the file system

     /bin/      user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user

     /boot/     programs and configuration files used during operating system

                defaults/  default bootstrapping configuration files; see
                dtb/       Compiled flattened device tree (FDT) files; see
                           fdt(4) and dtc(1)
                firmware/  loadable kernel modules containing binary firmware
                           for hardware that needs firmware downloaded to it
                           to function
                kernel/    pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded
                           into memory at boot time) and kernel modules
                modules/   third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)
                zfs/       zfs(8) zpool cache files

     /cdrom/    default mount point for CD-ROM drives

     /compat/   normally a link to /usr/compat.  If not, then the /usr/compat
                comments apply

     /dev/      device special files managed by devfs(5)

                fd/   file descriptor files; see fd(4)

     /etc/      system configuration files and scripts

                defaults/   default system configuration files; see rc(8)
                bluetooth/  bluetooth configuration files
                localtime   local timezone information; see ctime(3)
                mail/       Sendmail control files
                mtree/      mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
                pam.d/      configuration files for the Pluggable
                            Authentication Modules (PAM) library
                periodic/   scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly,
                            via cron(8); see periodic(8)
                rc.d/       system and daemon startup/control scripts; see
                security/   OpenBSM audit configuration files; see audit(8)
                ppp/        ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
                ssh/        OpenSSH configuration files; see ssh(1)
                ssl/        OpenSSL configuration files

     /lib/      critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and

                geom/  class-specific libraries for the geom(8) utility

     /libexec/  critical system utilities needed for binaries in /bin and

     /media/    contains subdirectories to be used as mount points for
                removable media such as CDs, USB drives, and floppy disks

     /mnt/      empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
                temporary mount point

     /net/      automounted NFS shares; see auto_master(5)

     /proc/     process file system; see procfs(5)

     /rescue/   statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see

     /root/     root's HOME directory

     /sbin/     system programs and administration utilities fundamental to
                both single-user and multi-user environments

     /tmp/      temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across
                system reboots

     /usr/      contains the majority of user utilities and applications

                bin/      common utilities, programming tools, and
                compat/   files needed to support binary compatibility with
                          other operating systems, such as Linux
                include/  standard C include files

                          arpa/       C include files for Internet service
                          bsnmp/      C include files for the SNMP daemon
                          c++/        C++ include files
                          cam/        C include files for the Common Access
                                      Methods Layer
                                      scsi/       SCSI device on top of CAM
                          dev/        C include files for programming various
                                      FreeBSD devices
                                      ic/         various header files
                                                  describing driver- and bus-
                                                  independent hardware
                                      ofw/        Open Firmware support
                                      pbio/       8255 PPI cards; see pbio(4)
                                      ppbus/      parallel port bus; see
                                      usb/        USB subsystem
                                      utopia/     physical chip driver for ATM
                                                  interfaces; see utopia(4)
                                      wi/         wi(4) WaveLAN driver
                                      fdescfs/    per-process file descriptors
                                                  file system
                                      msdosfs/    MS-DOS file system
                                      nfs/        C include files for NFS
                                                  (Network File System)
                                                  version 2, 3 and 4
                                      nullfs/     loopback file system
                                      procfs/     process file system
                                      smbfs/      SMB/CIFS file system
                                      udf/        UDF file system
                                      unionfs     union file system
                          geom/       GEOM framework
                                      concat/     CONCAT GEOM class
                                      gate/       GATE GEOM class
                                      mirror/     MIRROR GEOM class
                                      nop/        NOP GEOM class
                                      raid3/      RAID3 GEOM class
                                      stripe/     STRIPE GEOM class

                          libmilter/  C include files for libmilter, the
                                      sendmail(8) mail filter API
                          machine/    machine-specific C include files
                          net/        miscellaneous network C include files
                                      altq/  C include files for alternate
                          net80211/   C include files for 802.11 wireless
                                      networking; see net80211(4)
                          netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
                                      protocols; see inet(4)
                          netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol
                                      version 6; see inet6(4)
                          netipsec/   kernel key-management service; see
                          netnatm/    NATM include files; see natm(4)
                                      api/        include files for the
                                                  signalling API
                                      msg/        include files that describe
                                                  signalling messages and
                                                  declare associated functions
                                      saal/       include files for the
                                                  signalling AAL layer
                                      sig/        include files for the UNI
                                                  signalling protocol
                          netsmb/     SMB/CIFS requester
                          nfs/        C include files for NFS (Network File
                                      System) version 2 and 3 (legacy)
                          openssl/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit)
                          protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
                          readline/   get a line from a user, with editing;
                                      see readline(3)
                          rpc/        remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
                          rpcsvc/     definition of RPC service structures;
                                      see rpc(3)
                          security/   PAM; see pam(8)
                          sys/        system C include files (kernel data
                          ufs/        C include files for UFS (The U-word File
                                      ffs/        Fast file system
                                      ufs/        UFS file system
                          vm/         virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

                lib/      shared and archive ar(1)-type libraries
                          aout/       a.out archive libraries
                          compat/     shared libraries for compatibility
                                      aout/       a.out backward compatibility
                          debug/      standalone debug data for the kernel and
                                      base system libraries and binaries
                          dtrace/     DTrace library scripts
                          engines/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit)
                                      dynamically loadable engines

                libdata/  miscellaneous utility data files
                          gcc/        gcc(1) configuration data
                          ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)
                          lint/       various prebuilt lint libraries; see

                libexec/  system daemons & system utilities (executed by other
                          aout/       utilities to manipulate a.out
                          elf/        utilities to manipulate ELF executables
                          lpr/        utilities and filters for LP print
                                      system; see lpr(1)
                          sendmail/   the sendmail(8) binary; see
                          sm.bin/     restricted shell for sendmail(8); see

                local/    local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as the
                          default destination for the ports(7) framework.
                          Within local/, the general layout sketched out by
                          hier for /usr should be used.  Exceptions are the
                          man directory (directly under local/ rather than
                          under local/share/), ports documentation (in
                          share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics
                obj/      architecture-specific target tree produced by
                          building the /usr/src tree
                ports/    ports(7), the FreeBSD ports collection.
                sbin/     system daemons & system utilities (executed by
                share/    architecture-independent files

                          calendar/  a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see
                          dict/      word lists; see look(1)

                                     freebsd     FreeBSD-specific terms,
                                                 proper names, and jargon
                                     web2        words from Webster's 2nd

                          doc/       miscellaneous documentation; source for
                                     most of the printed BSD manuals
                                     (available from the USENIX association)
                                     FAQ/        Frequently Asked Questions
                                     IPv6/       implementation notes for IPv6
                                     bind/       documents pertaining to BIND
                                                 (the Berkeley Internet Name
                                     es/         Spanish translations of
                                                 documents in /usr/share/doc
                                     handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
                                     ja/         Japanese translations of
                                                 documents in /usr/share/doc
                                     legal/      License files for vendor
                                                 supplied firmwares
                                     ncurses/    HTML documents pertaining to
                                                 ncurses; see ncurses(3)
                                     ntp/        HTML documents pertaining to
                                                 the Network Time Protocol
                                     papers/     UNIX Papers
                                     psd/        UNIX Programmer's
                                                 Supplementary Documents
                                     ru/         Russian translations of
                                                 documents in /usr/share/doc
                                     smm/        UNIX System Manager's Manual
                                     tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
                                     usd/        UNIX User's Supplementary
                                     zh/         Chinese translations of
                                                 documents in /usr/share/doc

                          examples/  various examples for users and
                          firmware/  firmware images loaded by userland
                          games/     ASCII text files used by various games
                                     device description file for device name
                          keys/      known trusted and revoked keys.
                                     pkg/  fingerprints for pkg(7) and pkg(8)

                          locale/    localization files; see setlocale(3)
                          man/       manual pages
                          me/        macros for use with the me macro package;
                                     see me(7)
                          misc/      miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text
                                     fonts/      ???
                                     termcap     terminal characteristics
                                                 database; see termcap(5)
                          mk/        templates for make; see make(1)
                          nls/       national language support files; see
                          security/  data files for security policies such as
                          sendmail/  sendmail(8) configuration files
                          skel/      example . (dot) files for new accounts
                          snmp/      MIBs, example files and tree definitions
                                     for the SNMP daemon.
                                     defs/       tree definition files for use
                                                 with gensnmptree(1)
                                     mibs/       MIB files
                          syscons/   files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
                                     fonts/     console fonts; see
                                                vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
                                     keymaps/   console keyboard maps; see
                                                kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
                                     scrnmaps/  console screen maps
                          tabset/    tab description files for a variety of
                                     terminals; used in the termcap file; see
                          tmac/      text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
                          vi/        localization support and utilities for
                          vt/        files used by vt; see vt(4)
                                     fonts/     console fonts; see
                                                vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
                                     keymaps/   console keyboard maps; see
                                                kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
                          zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
                src/      BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

                          bin/        source code for files in /bin
                          cddl/       utilities covered by the Common
                                      Development and Distribution License
                          contrib/    source code for contributed software
                          crypto/     source code for contributed cryptography
                          etc/        source code for files in /etc
                          gnu/        utilities covered by the GNU General
                                      Public License
                          include/    source code for files in /usr/include
                          kerberos5/  build infrastructure for kerberos
                                      version 5
                          lib/        source code for files in /lib and
                          libexec/    source code for files in /usr/libexec
                          release/    files required to produce a FreeBSD
                          rescue/     source code for files in /rescue
                          sbin/       source code for files in /sbin
                          secure/     build directory for files in
                          share/      source for files in /usr/share
                          sys/        kernel source code
                                      amd64/           AMD64 architecture
                                      arm/             ARM architecture
                                      arm64/           ARMv8 architecture
                                      boot/            bootloader code
                                      cam/             cam(4) and ctl(4)
                                      cddl/            CDDL-licensed optional
                                                       sources, including ZFS
                                                       and DTrace
                                      ddb/             ddb(4)
                                      fs/              most filesystems
                                      dev/             device drivers
                                      geom/            geom(4)
                                      i386/            i386 (32 bit)
                                                       architecture support
                                      kern/            main part of the kernel
                                      mips/            MIPS architecture
                                      net80211/        net80211(4)
                                      netgraph/        netgraph(4)
                                      netinet/         inet(4)
                                      netinet6/        inet6(4)
                                      netipsec/        ipsec(4)
                                      netpfil/         ipfw(4) and pf(4)
                                      opencrypto/      crypto(7)
                                      powerpc/         PowerPC/POWER
                                                       architecture support
                                      riscv/           RISC-V architecture
                                      security/        audit(4) and mac(4)
                                      sparc64/         SPARC64 architecture
                                      sys/             kernel headers
                                      ufs/             Unix File System
                                      x86/             code shared by AMD64
                                                       and i386 architectures
                          targets/    support for experimental DIRDEPS_BUILD
                          tests/      source code for files in /usr/tests
                          tools/      tools used for maintenance and testing
                                      of FreeBSD
                          usr.bin/    source code for files in /usr/bin
                          usr.sbin/   source code for files in /usr/sbin

                tests/    The FreeBSD test suite.  See tests(7) for more

     /var/      multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

                account/   system accounting files

                           acct        execution accounting file; see acct(5)

                at/        timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
                           jobs/      directory containing job files
                           spool/     directory containing output spool files

                backups/   miscellaneous backup files
                cache/     miscellaneous cached files
                           pkg/  cached packages for pkg(8)

                crash/     default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
                           crash(8) and savecore(8)
                cron/      files used by cron; see cron(8)
                           tabs/      crontab files; see crontab(5)

                db/        miscellaneous automatically generated system-
                           specific database files
                empty/     empty directory for use by programs that need a
                           specifically empty directory.  Used for instance by
                           sshd(8) for privilege separation.
                games/     miscellaneous game status and score files
                heimdal/   kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
                log/       miscellaneous system log files

                                       last login log; see getutxent(3)
                           utx.log     login/logout log; see getutxent(3)

                mail/      user mailbox files
                msgs/      system messages database; see msgs(1)
                preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an
                           accidental death of an editor; see ex(1)
                quotas/    file system quota information files
                run/       system information files describing various info
                           about system since it was booted

                           ppp/        writable by the ``network'' group for
                                       command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
                   database of current users; see

                rwho/      rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
                spool/     miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling

                                       undelivered submission mail queue; see
                           ftp/        commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root
                           mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
                           output/     line printer spooling directories

                tmp/       temporary files that are kept between system
                                       the directory where recovery files are
                yp/        the NIS maps

     This manual page documents the default FreeBSD file system layout, but
     the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
     administrator's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include
     a customized version of this document.

     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
     which(1), fd(4), devfs(5), fsck(8)

     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4          April 6, 2017         FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4
Command Section