Command Section
GVINUM(8)               FreeBSD System Manager's Manual              GVINUM(8)

     gvinum - Logical Volume Manager control program

     gvinum [command] [-options]

     attach plex volume [rename]

     attach subdisk plex [offset] [rename]
             Attach a plex to a volume, or a subdisk to a plex.  If offset is
             specified, the subdisk will be attached to the given offset
             within the plex.  If rename is specified, the subdisk or plex
             will change name according to the object it attaches to.

     checkparity [-f] plex
             Check the parity blocks of a RAID-5 plex.  The parity check will
             start at the beginning of the plex if the -f flag is specified,
             or otherwise at the location of the parity check pointer, the
             first location at which plex's parity is incorrect.  All subdisks
             in the plex must be up for a parity check.

     concat [-fv] [-n name] drives
             Create a concatenated volume from the specified drives.  If no
             name is specified, a unique name will be set by gvinum.

     create [-f] [description-file]
             Create a volume as described in description-file.  If no
             description-file provided, opens an editor and provides the
             current gvinum configuration for editing.  The -f flag will make
             gvinum ignore any errors regarding creating objects that already
             exists.  However, in contrast to vinum, objects that are not
             properly named in the description-file will not be created when
             the -f flag is given.

     detach [-f] [plex | subdisk]
             Detach a plex or subdisk from the volume or plex to which it is

     grow plex device
             Grow a plex by creating a gvinum drive and subdisk on device and
             attach it to the plex.  If required by the plex organization, it
             will be put into the growable state.

     help    Provides a synopsis of gvinum commands and arguments.

     l | list [-rvV] [volume | plex | subdisk]

     ld [-rvV] [drive ...]

     ls [-rvV] [subdisk ...]

     lp [-rvV] [plex ...]

     lv [-rvV] [volume ...]
             List information about the relevant object(s).  The -r flag
             provides recursive display, showing each object's subordinate
             objects in proper relation.  The -v and -V flags provide
             progressively more detailed output.

     mirror [-fsv] [-n name] drives
             Create a mirrored volume from the specified drives.  It requires
             at least a multiple of 2 drives.  If no name is specified, a
             unique name will be set by gvinum.  If the -s flag is specified,
             a striped mirror will be created, and thus requires a multiple of
             4 drives.

     move | mv -f drive subdisk [...]
             Move the subdisk(s) to the specified drive.  The -f flag is
             required, as all data on the indicated subdisk(s) will be
             destroyed as part of the move.  This can currently only be done
             when the subdisk is not being accessed.

             If a single subdisk is moved, and it forms a part of a RAID-5
             plex, the moved subdisks will need to be set to the ``stale''
             state, and the plex will require a start command.  If multiple
             subdisk(s) is moved, and form part of a RAID-5 plex, the moved
             disk(s) will need to be set to the ``up'' state and the plex will
             require a rebuildparity command.  If the subdisk(s) form part of
             a plex that is mirrored with other plexes, the plex will require
             restarting and will sync once restarted.  Moving more than one
             subdisk in a RAID-5 plex or subdisks from both sides of a
             mirrored plex volume will destroy data.  Note that parity
             rebuilds and syncing must be started manually after a move.

             Write a copy of the current configuration to standard output.

     quit    Exit gvinum when running in interactive mode.  Normally this
             would be done by entering the EOF character.

     raid5 [-fv] [-s stripesize] [-n name] drives
             Create a RAID-5 volume from the specified drives.  If no name is
             specified, a unique name will be set by gvinum.  This
             organization requires at least three drives.

     rename [-r] drive | subdisk | plex | volume newname
             Change the name of the specified object.  The -r flag will
             recursively rename subordinate objects.

             Note that device nodes will not be renamed until gvinum is

     rebuildparity [-f] plex
             Rebuild the parity blocks of a RAID-5 plex.  The parity rebuild
             will start at the beginning of the plex if the -f flag is
             specified, or otherwise at the location of the parity check
             pointer.  All subdisks in the plex must be up for a parity check.

     resetconfig [-f]
             Reset the complete gvinum configuration.

     rm [-r] volume | plex | subdisk
             Remove an object and, if -r is specified, its subordinate

             Save gvinum configuration to disk after configuration failures.

     setstate [-f] state volume | plex | subdisk | drive
             Set state without influencing other objects, for diagnostic
             purposes only.  The -f flag forces state changes regardless of
             whether they are legal.

     start   Read configuration from all vinum drives.

     start [-S size] volume | plex | subdisk
             Allow the system to access the objects.  If necessary, plexes
             will be synced and rebuilt.  If a subdisk was added to a running
             RAID-5 or striped plex, gvinum will expand into this subdisk and
             grow the whole RAID-5 array.  This can be done without unmounting
             your filesystem.  The -S flag is currently ignored.

     stop [-f] [volume | plex | subdisk]
             Terminate access to the objects, or stop gvinum if no parameters
             are specified.

     stripe [-fv] [-n name] drives
             Create a striped volume from the specified drives. If no name is
             specified, a unique name will be set by gvinum.  This
             organization requires at least two drives.

     The gvinum utility communicates with the kernel component of the GVinum
     logical volume manager.  It is designed either for interactive use, when
     started without command line arguments, or to execute a single command if
     the command is supplied on the command line.  In interactive mode, gvinum
     maintains a command line history.

     The gvinum commands may be followed by an option.

     -f      The -f (``force'') option overrides safety checks.  It should be
             used with extreme caution.  This option is required in order to
             use the move command.

     -r      The -r (``recursive'') option applies the command recursively to
             subordinate objects.  For example, in conjunction with the lv
             command, the -r option will also show information about the
             plexes and subdisks belonging to the volume.  It is also used by
             the rename command to indicate that subordinate objects such as
             subdisks should be renamed to match the object(s) specified and
             by the rm command to delete plexes belonging to a volume and so

     -v      The -v (``verbose'') option provides more detailed output.

     -V      The -V (``very verbose'') option provides even more detailed
             output than -v.

     EDITOR      The name of the editor to use for editing configuration
                 files, by default vi(1) is invoked.

     /dev/gvinum           directory with device nodes for gvinum objects

     To create a mirror on disks /dev/ada1 and /dev/ada2, create a filesystem,
     mount, unmount and then stop gvinum:

           gvinum mirror /dev/ada1 /dev/ada2
           newfs /dev/gvinum/gvinumvolume0
           mount /dev/gvinum/gvinumvolume0 /mnt
           unmount /mnt
           gvinum stop

     To create a striped mirror on disks /dev/ada1 /dev/ada2 /dev/ada3 and
     /dev/ada4 named "data" and create a filesystem:

           gvinum mirror -s -n data /dev/ada1 /dev/ada2 /dev/ada3 /dev/ada4
           newfs /dev/gvinum/data

     To create a raid5 array on disks /dev/ada1 /dev/ada2 and /dev/ada3, with
     stripesize 493k you can use the raid5 command:

           gvinum raid5 -s 493k /dev/ada1 /dev/ada2 /dev/ada3

     Then the volume will be created automatically.  Afterwards, you have to
     initialize the volume:

           gvinum start myraid5vol

     The initialization will start, and the states will be updated when it's
     finished.  The list command will give you information about its progress.

     Imagine that one of the drives fails, and the output of 'printconfig'
     looks something like this:

           drive gvinumdrive1 device /dev/ada2
           drive gvinumdrive2 device /dev/???
           drive gvinumdrive0 device /dev/ada1
           volume myraid5vol
           plex name myraid5vol.p0 org raid5 986s vol myraid5vol
           sd name myraid5vol.p0.s2 drive gvinumdrive2 len 32538s driveoffset
           plex myraid5vol.p0 plexoffset 1972s
           sd name myraid5vol.p0.s1 drive gvinumdrive1 len 32538s driveoffset
           plex myraid5vol.p0 plexoffset 986s
           sd name myraid5vol.p0.s0 drive gvinumdrive0 len 32538s driveoffset
           plex myraid5vol.p0 plexoffset 0s

     Create a new drive with this configuration:

           drive gdrive4 device /dev/ada4

     Then move the stale subdisk to the new drive:

           gvinum move gdrive4 myraid5vol.p0.s2

     Then, initiate the rebuild:

           gvinum start myraid5vol.p0

     The plex will go up form degraded mode after the rebuild is finished.
     The plex can still be used while the rebuild is in progress, although
     requests might be delayed.

     Given the configuration as in the previous example, growing a RAID-5 or
     STRIPED array is accomplished by using the grow command:

           gvinum grow myraid5vol.p0 /dev/ada4

     If everything went ok, the plex state should now be set to growable.  You
     can then start the growing with the start command:

           gvinum start myraid5vol.p0

     As with rebuilding, you can watch the progress using the list command.

     For a more advanced usage and detailed explanation of gvinum, the
     handbook is recommended.

     geom(4), geom(8)

     The gvinum utility first appeared in FreeBSD 5.3.  The vinum utility, on
     which gvinum is based, was written by Greg Lehey.

     The gvinum utility was written by Lukas Ertl.  The move and rename
     commands and documentation were added by Chris Jones through the 2005
     Google Summer of Code program.  A partial rewrite of gvinum was done by
     Lukas Ertl and Ulf Lilleengen through the 2007 Google Summer of Code
     program.  The documentation have been updated to reflect the new

     Lukas Ertl <[email protected]>
     Chris Jones <[email protected]>
     Ulf Lilleengen <[email protected]>

     Currently, gvinum does not rename devices in /dev/gvinum until reloaded.

     The -S initsize flag to start is ignored.

     Moving subdisks that are not part of a mirrored or RAID-5 volume will
     destroy data.  It is perhaps a bug to permit this.

     Plexes in which subdisks have been moved do not automatically sync or
     rebuild parity.  This may leave data unprotected and is perhaps unwise.

     Currently, gvinum does not yet fully implement all of the functions found
     in vinum.  Specifically, the following commands from vinum are not

     debug   Cause the volume manager to enter the kernel debugger.

     debug flags
             Set debugging flags.

     dumpconfig [drive ...]
             List the configuration information stored on the specified
             drives, or all drives in the system if no drive names are

     info [-vV]
             List information about volume manager state.

     label volume
             Create a volume label.

     resetstats [-r] [volume | plex | subdisk]
             Reset statistics counters for the specified objects, or for all
             objects if none are specified.

     setdaemon [value]
             Set daemon configuration.

FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4           May 6, 2014          FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4
Command Section