Command Section
GROPS(1)							      GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -ppapersize ]
	     [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line	option and its

       grops translates	the output of GNU troff	to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the	groff  command	with  a	 -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this	 is  the  default  for groff.)	If no files are	given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also	 cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is	written	to the
       standard	output.	 When grops is run by groff options can	be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P	option.

       Note  that grops	doesn't	produce	a valid	document structure (conforming
       to the Document Structuring Convention) if called  with	multiple  file
       arguments.   To print such concatenated output it is necessary to deac-
       tivate DSC handling in the printing program or previewer.

       -bn    Provide workarounds for older  printers,	broken	spoolers,  and
	      previewers.   Normally  grops produces output at PostScript Lan-
	      guageLevel 2 that	conforms to the	Document  Structuring  Conven-
	      tions  version 3.0.  Some	older printers,	spoolers, and preview-
	      ers can't	handle such output.  The  value	 of  n	controls  what
	      grops  does  to  make its	output acceptable to such programs.  A
	      value of 0 will cause grops not to employ	any workarounds.

	      Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
	      should  be generated; this is needed for early versions of Tran-
	      Script that get confused by  anything  between  the  %%EndProlog
	      comment and the first %%Page comment.

	      Add  2  if  lines	in included files beginning with %!  should be
	      stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

	      Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments  should  be
	      stripped out of included files; this is needed for spoolers that
	      don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.

	      Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript	output should be %!PS-
	      Adobe-2.0	rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when	 using
	      Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page	reversal.

	      Add  16  if  no media size information should be included	in the
	      document (this is, neither  use  %%DocumentMedia	nor  the  set-
	      pagedevice PostScript command).  This was	the behaviour of groff
	      version 1.18.1 and earlier; it  is  needed  for  older  printers
	      which  don't  understand PostScript LanguageLevel	2.  It is also
	      necessary	if the output is further processed to get an  encapsu-
	      lated PS (EPS) file -- see below.

	      The default value	can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is	0.

       -cn    Print n copies of	each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend  directory  dir/devname to the search path for prologue,
	      font, and	device description files; name	is  the	 name  of  the
	      device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess  the  page	length.	  This	generates PostScript code that
	      guesses the page length.	The guess will be correct only if  the
	      imageable	 area is vertically centered on	the page.  This	option
	      allows you to generate documents that can	 be  printed  both  on
	      letter (8.5x11) paper and	on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This  option  may	 be  used to specify a directory to search for
	      files on the command line	and files named	in \X'ps: import'  and
	      \X'ps:  file' escapes.  The current directory is always searched
	      first.  This option may be specified more	than once; the	direc-
	      tories  will  be	searched in the	order specified.  No directory
	      search is	performed for files specified using an absolute	 path.

       -l     Print the	document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

	      Set  physical  dimension	of  output medium.  This overrides the
	      papersize, paperlength, and  paperwidth  commands	 in  the  DESC
	      file;  it	 accepts  the same arguments as	the papersize command.
	      See groff_font (5) for details.

	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as	 the  prologue
	      instead  of  the	default	 prologue  file	prologue.  This	option
	      overrides	the environment	variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an
	      em.  If this option is not given,	the line thickness defaults to
	      0.04 em.

       -v     Print the	version	number.

       There are styles	called R, I, B,	and BI mounted	at  font  positions  1
       to 4.  The fonts	are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T
       having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book
	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi
	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
	      BMR    Bookman-Light
	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
	      BMB    Bookman-Demi
	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
	      CR     Courier
	      CI     Courier-Oblique
	      CB     Courier-Bold
	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
	      HR     Helvetica
	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique
	      HB     Helvetica-Bold
	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
	      PR     Palatino-Roman
	      PI     Palatino-Italic
	      PB     Palatino-Bold
	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
	      TR     Times-Roman
	      TI     Times-Italic
	      TB     Times-Bold
	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is	also the following font	which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called	S for the PS Symbol font,  and
       SS,  containing	slanted	 lowercase Greek letters taken from PS Symbol.
       Zapf Dingbats is	available as ZD	and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats
       (with  symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR;
       most characters in these	fonts are unnamed and must be  accessed	 using

       The  default  color  for	 \m and	\M is black; for colors	defined	in the
       `rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and  `cmyk'  setcmyk-
       color,  and for `gray' setgray.	Note that setcmykcolor is a PostScript
       LanguageLevel 2 command and thus	not available on some older  printers.

       grops  understands  various  X  commands	 produced  using the \X	escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript	commands in code.  The
	      PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
	      command  before  executing  code.	 The origin will be at the top
	      left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will	increase  down
	      the  page.   A  procedure	 u will	be defined that	converts groff
	      units to the coordinate system in	effect.	 For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will draw	a horizontal  line  one	 inch  long.   code  may  make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the	page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
	      specified	 by  the def and mdef will be on top of	the dictionary
	      stack.  If your code adds	definitions to	this  dictionary,  you
	      should allocate space for	them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini-
	      tions will persist only until the	end of the page.  If  you  use
	      the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is another way to	draw a horizontal line one inch	long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
	      code is read from	file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.	  Long
	      definitions  can be split	over several \X	commands; all the code
	      arguments	are simply joined together separated by	newlines.  The
	      definitions  are	placed	in a dictionary	which is automatically
	      pushed on	the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If  you use the \Y escape	sequence with an argument that names a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like def,	except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
	      grops  needs  to know how	many definitions code contains so that
	      it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript	dictionary  to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width	[ height ]'
	      Import  a	PostScript graphic from	file.  The arguments llx, lly,
	      urx, and ury give	the bounding box of the	graphic	in the default
	      PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
	      and lly are the x	and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
	      the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are	the x and y coordinates	of the
	      upper right corner of the	graphic; width and height are integers
	      that  give  the  desired	width and height in groff units	of the
	      graphic.	The graphic will be scaled so that it has  this	 width
	      and  height  and translated so that the lower left corner	of the
	      graphic is located at the	position associated with  \X  command.
	      If the height argument is	omitted	it will	be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and	y directions so	that it	has the	specified width.  Note
	      that  the	 contents  of  the  \X	command	are not	interpreted by
	      troff; so	vertical space for the graphic	is  not	 automatically
	      added,  and  the	width  and height arguments are	not allowed to
	      have attached scaling indicators.	 If the	PostScript  file  com-
	      plies  with  the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and con-
	      tains a %%BoundingBox comment, then  the	bounding  box  can  be
	      automatically  extracted	from  within  groff  by	using the psbb

	      See groff_tmac(5)	for a description of  the  PSPIC  macro	 which
	      provides	a  convenient  high-level  interface  for inclusion of
	      PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No output	will be	generated for text and drawing	commands  that
	      are  bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands are
	      intended for use when output from	troff will be previewed	before
	      being  processed	with grops; if the previewer is	unable to dis-
	      play certain characters or other constructs, then	other  substi-
	      tute  characters	or  constructs	can  be	used for previewing by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For example, gxditview is	not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
	      character	because	the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em	\X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to	display	the \(em char-
	      acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will	print the \(em
	      character	and ignore the line (this  code	 is  already  in  file
	      Xps.tmac	which  will be loaded if a document intended for grops
	      is previewed with	gxditview).

       The input to grops must be in the format	output by troff(1).   This  is
       described in groff_out(5).

       In  addition, the device	and font description files for the device used
       must meet certain requirements.	The device and font description	 files
       supplied	for ps device meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(1)	can be
       used to create font files from AFM files.  The resolution  must	be  an
       integer multiple	of 72 times the	sizescale.  The	ps device uses a reso-
       lution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file  must  contain  a  valid  paper  size;  see
       groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript  font  should  be	 reencoded  using  the
       encoding	 described in enc_file;	this file should consist of a sequence
       of lines	of the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
       position	 in  the encoding expressed as a decimal integer; valid	values
       are in the range	0 to 255.  Lines starting with # and blank  lines  are
       ignored.	  The code for each character given in the font	file must cor-
       respond to the code for the character in	encoding file, or to the  code
       in  the	default	encoding for the font if the PostScript	font is	not to
       be reencoded.  This code	can be used with the  \N  escape  sequence  in
       troff  to  select  the character, even if the character does not	have a
       groff name.  Every character in the font	file must exist	in  the	 Post-
       Script  font,  and  the	widths	given  in the font file	must match the
       widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will assume that a character
       with  a	groff  name of space is	blank (makes no	marks on the page); it
       can make	use of such a character	to generate more efficient and compact
       PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in	a PostScript font, not
       only 256.  enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file	speci-
       fied)  just  defines  the order of glyphs for the first 256 characters;
       all other glyphs	are accessed with additional  encoding	vectors	 which
       grops produces on the fly.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use  pfbtops(1)
       to  convert  a Type 1 font in PFB format.  Any downloadable fonts which
       should, when required, be included by grops must	be listed in the  file
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download;  this  should consist of lines of
       the form

	      font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the	font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font;	lines beginning	with # and blank lines
       are ignored; fields may be separated by tabs or spaces;	filename  will
       be  searched  for  using	the same mechanism that	is used	for groff font
       metric files.  The download file	itself will also be searched for using
       this  mechanism;	 currently, only the first found file in the font path
       is used.

       If the file containing a	downloadable font or  imported	document  con-
       forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently	to ensure that its own
       output  is  conforming.	 It will also supply any needed	font resources
       that are	listed in the  download	 file  as  well	 as  any  needed  file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example,	suppose	that you have a	downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font	called Garamond-Outline	which depends on Gara-
       mond (typically it would	be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and  change the PaintType), then	it is necessary	for Garamond to	appear
       before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops will	handle
       this  automatically  provided that the downloadable font	file for Gara-
       mond-Outline indicates its dependence on	Garamond by means of the Docu-
       ment Structuring	Conventions, for example by beginning with the follow-
       ing lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be	listed
       in  the	download file.	A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret	 %%DocumentFonts  comments.   The  %%Document-
       NeededResources,	    %%DocumentSuppliedResources,    %%IncludeResource,
       %%BeginResource,	 and  %%EndResource  comments  (or  possibly  the  old
       %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%Begin-
       Font, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   Encapsulated	PostScript
       grops itself doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the  help  of
       GhostScript the following commands will produce an encapsulated PS file
       foo.eps from input file foo:

	      groff -P-b16 foo >
	      gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- 2> foo.bbox
	      cat | sed -e '/%%Orientation/rfoo.bbx' > foo.eps
	      rm foo.bbx

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType	fonts can be used with grops if	converted  first  to  Type  42
       format,	an  especial  PostScript  wrapper equivalent to	the PFA	format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).	 There are several different methods to	gener-
       ate  a  type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a PostScript
       interpreter such	as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the easiest	method
       involves	 the  use  of  the  application	 ttftot42.   This program uses
       freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font wrappers and	 well-
       formed  AFM  files  that	can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to	create
       appropriate metric files.  The resulting	font wrappers should be	 added
       to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from <

	      If  this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the
	      font path) instead of the	default	prologue file  prologue.   The
	      option -P	overrides this environment variable.

	      Device description file.

	      Font description file for	font F.

	      List of downloadable fonts.

	      Encoding used for	text fonts.

	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

	      Macros  to  disable use of characters not	present	in older Post-
	      Script printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

	      Temporary	file.

       afmtodit(1),    groff(1),    troff(1),	 pfbtops(1),	 groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

       PostScript Language Document Structuring	Conventions Specification

Groff Version 1.19.2	       4 September 2005			      GROPS(1)
Command Section