Command Section
BOOTPD(8)               FreeBSD System Manager's Manual              BOOTPD(8)

     bootpd, bootpgw - Internet Boot Protocol server/gateway

     bootpd [-i | -s] [-c chdir-path] [-d level] [-h hostname] [-t timeout]
            [bootptab [dumpfile]]
     bootpgw [-i | -s] [-d level] [-h hostname] [-t timeout] server

     The bootpd utility implements an Internet Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
     server as defined in RFC951, RFC1532, and RFC1533.  The bootpgw utility
     implements a simple BOOTP gateway which can be used to forward requests
     and responses between clients on one subnet and a BOOTP server (i.e.
     bootpd) on another subnet.  While either bootpd or bootpgw will forward
     BOOTREPLY packets, only bootpgw will forward BOOTREQUEST packets.

     One host on each network segment is normally configured to run either
     bootpd or bootpgw from inetd(8) by including one of the following lines
     in the file /etc/inetd.conf:

           bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/libexec/bootpd bootpd /etc/bootptab
           bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/libexec/bootpgw bootpgw server

     This mode of operation is referred to as "inetd mode" and causes bootpd
     (or bootpgw) to be started only when a boot request arrives.  If it does
     not receive another packet within fifteen minutes of the last one it
     received, it will exit to conserve system resources.  The -t option
     controls this timeout (see OPTIONS).

     It is also possible to run bootpd (or bootpgw) in "standalone mode"
     (without inetd(8)) by simply invoking it from a shell like any other
     regular command.  Standalone mode is particularly useful when bootpd is
     used with a large configuration database, where the start up delay might
     otherwise prevent timely response to client requests.  (Automatic start
     up in standalone mode can be done by invoking bootpd from within
     /etc/rc.local, for example.)  Standalone mode is less useful for bootpgw
     which has very little start up delay because it does not read a
     configuration file.

     Either program automatically detects whether it was invoked from inetd or
     from a shell and automatically selects the appropriate mode.  The -s or
     -i option may be used to force standalone or inetd mode respectively (see

     The following options are available:

     -t timeout
             Specify the timeout value (in minutes) that a bootpd or bootpgw
             process will wait for a BOOTP packet before exiting.  If no
             packets are received for timeout minutes, then the program will
             exit.  A timeout value of zero means "run forever".  In
             standalone mode, this option is forced to zero.

     -d debug-level
             Set the debug-level variable that controls the amount of
             debugging messages generated.  For example, -d4 or -d 4 will set
             the debugging level to 4.  For compatibility with older versions
             of bootpd, omitting the numeric parameter (i.e., just -d) will
             simply increment the debug level by one.

     -c chdir-path
             Set the current directory used by bootpd while checking the
             existence and size of client boot files.  This is useful when
             client boot files are specified as relative pathnames, and bootpd
             needs to use the same current directory as the TFTP server
             (typically /tftpboot).  This option is not recognized by bootpgw.

     -h hostname
             Specify the hostname corresponding to the IP address to listen
             on.  By default, bootpd listens on the IP address corresponding
             to the machine's hostname, as returned by gethostname(3).

     -i      Force inetd mode.  This option is obsolete, but remains for
             compatibility with older versions of bootpd.

     -s      Force standalone mode.  This option is obsolete, but remains for
             compatibility with older versions of bootpd.

             Specify the name of the configuration file from which bootpd
             loads its database of known clients and client options (bootpd

             Specify the name of the file that bootpd will dump its internal
             database into when it receives a SIGUSR1 signal (bootpd only).
             This option is only recognized if bootpd was compiled with the
             -DDEBUG flag.

     server  Specify the name of a BOOTP server to which bootpgw will forward
             all BOOTREQUEST packets it receives (bootpgw only).

     Both bootpd and bootpgw operate similarly in that both listen for any
     packets sent to the bootps port, and both simply forward any BOOTREPLY
     packets.  They differ in their handling of BOOTREQUEST packets.

     When bootpgw is started, it determines the address of a BOOTP server
     whose name is provided as a command line parameter.  When bootpgw
     receives a BOOTREQUEST packet, it sets the "gateway address" and "hop
     count" fields in the packet and forwards the packet to the BOOTP server
     at the address determined earlier.  Requests are forwarded only if they
     indicate that the client has been waiting for at least three seconds.

     When bootpd is started it reads a configuration file, (normally
     /etc/bootptab) that initializes the internal database of known clients
     and client options.  This internal database is reloaded from the
     configuration file when bootpd receives a hangup signal (SIGHUP) or when
     it discovers that the configuration file has changed.

     When bootpd receives a BOOTREQUEST packet, it looks for a database entry
     matching the client request.  If the client is known, bootpd composes a
     BOOTREPLY packet using the database entry found above, and sends the
     reply to the client (possibly using a gateway).  If the client is
     unknown, the request is discarded (with a notice if debug > 0).

     If bootpd is compiled with the -DDEBUG option, receipt of a SIGUSR1
     signal causes it to dump its internal database to the file
     /tmp/bootpd.dump or the dumpfile specified as a command line parameter.

     During initialization, both programs determine the UDP port numbers to be
     used by calling getservbyname(3) (which normally uses /etc/services).
     Two service names (and port numbers) are used:

           bootps BOOTP Server listening port
           bootpc BOOTP Client destination port

     If the port numbers cannot be determined using getservbyname(3) then the
     values default to bootps=67 and bootpc=68.

     /etc/bootptab     Database file read by bootpd.
     /tmp/bootpd.dump  Debugging dump file created by bootpd.
     /etc/services     Internet service numbers.
     /tftpboot         Current directory typically used by the TFTP server and

     bootptab(5), inetd(8), tftpd(8)

     DARPA Internet Request For Comments:
     RFC951   Bootstrap Protocol
     RFC1532  Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol
     RFC1533  DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions

     This distribution is currently maintained by Walter L. Wimer
     <[email protected]>.

     The original BOOTP server was created by
     Bill Croft at Stanford University in January 1986.

     The current version of bootpd is primarily the work of
     David Kovar,
     Drew D. Perkins, and
     Walter L. Wimer, at Carnegie Mellon University.

     Enhancements and bug-fixes have been contributed by:

     (in alphabetical order)

     Danny Backx <[email protected]>
     John Brezak <[email protected]>
     Frank da Cruz <[email protected]>
     David R. Linn <[email protected]>
     Jim McKim <[email protected]>
     Gordon W. Ross <[email protected]>
     Jason Zions <[email protected]>.

     Individual host entries must not exceed 1024 characters.

FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4        February 10, 2004       FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4
Command Section