Man

Command Section
BINUTILS(7)        FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual        BINUTILS(7)

NAME
     binutils - GNU Binary Utilities

Introduction
     This brief manual contains documentation for the GNU binary utilities
     version "2.17.50 [FreeBSD] 2007-07-03":

     This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free
     Documentation License. A copy of the license is included in the section
     entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

ar
           ar [-]p[mod [relpos] [count]] archive [member...]
           ar -M [ <mri-script ]

     The GNU ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives. An
     archive is a single file holding a collection of other files in a
     structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual
     files (called members of the archive).

     The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner, and
     group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on extraction.

     GNU ar can maintain archives whose members have names of any length;
     however, depending on how ar is configured on your system, a limit on
     member-name length may be imposed for compatibility with archive formats
     maintained with other tools. If it exists, the limit is often 15
     characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16 characters
     (typical of formats related to coff).

     ar is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort are most
     often used as libraries holding commonly needed subroutines.

     ar creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object modules
     in the archive when you specify the modifier s.  Once created, this index
     is updated in the archive whenever ar makes a change to its contents
     (save for the q update operation). An archive with such an index speeds
     up linking to the library, and allows routines in the library to call
     each other without regard to their placement in the archive.

     You may use nm -s or nm --print-armap to list this index table. If an
     archive lacks the table, another form of ar called ranlib can be used to
     add just the table.

     GNU ar is designed to be compatible with two different facilities. You
     can control its activity using command-line options, like the different
     varieties of ar on Unix systems; or, if you specify the single command-
     line option [-M], you can control it with a script supplied via standard
     input, like the MRI "librarian" program.

   Controlling ar(on) the Command Line
           ar [-X32_64] [-]p[mod [relpos] [count]] archive [member...]

     When you use ar in the Unix style, ar insists on at least two arguments
     to execute: one keyletter specifying the operation (optionally
     accompanied by other keyletters specifying modifiers), and the archive
     name to act on.

     Most operations can also accept further member arguments, specifying
     particular files to operate on.

     GNU ar allows you to mix the operation code p and modifier flags mod in
     any order, within the first command-line argument.

     If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a dash.

     The p keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be any of the
     following, but you must specify only one of them:

     d       Delete modules from the archive. Specify the names of modules to
             be deleted as member ...; the archive is untouched if you specify
             no files to delete.

             If you specify the v modifier, ar lists each module as it is
             deleted.

     m       Use this operation to move members in an archive.

             The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in
             how programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined
             in more than one member.

             If no modifiers are used with m, any members you name in the
             member arguments are moved to the end of the archive; you can use
             the a, b, or i modifiers to move them to a specified place
             instead.

     p       Print the specified members of the archive, to the standard
             output file. If the v modifier is specified, show the member name
             before copying its contents to standard output.

             If you specify no member arguments, all the files in the archive
             are printed.

     q       Quick append; Historically, add the files member ...to the end of
             archive, without checking for replacement.

             The modifiers a, b, and i do not affect this operation; new
             members are always placed at the end of the archive.

             The modifier v makes ar list each file as it is appended.

             Since the point of this operation is speed, the archive's symbol
             table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can
             use ar s or ranlib explicitly to update the symbol table index.

             However, too many different systems assume quick append rebuilds
             the index, so GNU ar implements q as a synonym for r.

     r       Insert the files member ...into archive (with replacement).  This
             operation differs from q in that any previously existing members
             are deleted if their names match those being added.

             If one of the files named in member ...does not exist, ar
             displays an error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing
             members of the archive matching that name.

             By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but you
             may use one of the modifiers a, b, or i to request placement
             relative to some existing member.

             The modifier v used with this operation elicits a line of output
             for each file inserted, along with one of the letters a or r to
             indicate whether the file was appended (no old member deleted) or
             replaced.

     t       Display a table listing the contents of archive, or those of the
             files listed in member ...that are present in the archive.
             Normally only the member name is shown; if you also want to see
             the modes (permissions), timestamp, owner, group, and size, you
             can request that by also specifying the v modifier.

             If you do not specify a member, all files in the archive are
             listed.

             If there is more than one file with the same name (say, fie) in
             an archive (say b.a), ar t b.a fie lists only the first instance;
             to see them all, you must ask for a complete listing---in our
             example, ar t b.a.

     x       Extract members (named member) from the archive. You can use the
             v modifier with this operation, to request that ar list each name
             as it extracts it.

             If you do not specify a member, all files in the archive are
             extracted.

     A number of modifiers ( mod) may immediately follow the p keyletter, to
     specify variations on an operation's behavior:

     a       Add new files after an existing member of the archive. If you use
             the modifier a, the name of an existing archive member must be
             present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.

     b       Add new files before an existing member of the archive. If you
             use the modifier b, the name of an existing archive member must
             be present as the relpos argument, before the archive
             specification. (same as i).

     c       Create the archive. The specified archive is always created if it
             did not exist, when you request an update. But a warning is
             issued unless you specify in advance that you expect to create
             it, by using this modifier.

     f       Truncate names in the archive. GNU ar will normally permit file
             names of any length. This will cause it to create archives which
             are not compatible with the native ar program on some systems. If
             this is a concern, the f modifier may be used to truncate file
             names when putting them in the archive.

     i       Insert new files before an existing member of the archive. If you
             use the modifier i, the name of an existing archive member must
             be present as the relpos argument, before the archive
             specification. (same as b).

     l       This modifier is accepted but not used.

     N       Uses the count parameter. This is used if there are multiple
             entries in the archive with the same name. Extract or delete
             instance count of the given name from the archive.

     o       Preserve the original dates of members when extracting them. If
             you do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the
             archive are stamped with the time of extraction.

     P       Use the full path name when matching names in the archive. GNU ar
             can not create an archive with a full path name (such archives
             are not POSIX complaint), but other archive creators can. This
             option will cause GNU ar to match file names using a complete
             path name, which can be convenient when extracting a single file
             from an archive created by another tool.

     s       Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an
             existing one, even if no other change is made to the archive. You
             may use this modifier flag either with any operation, or alone.
             Running ar s on an archive is equivalent to running ranlib on it.

     S       Do not generate an archive symbol table. This can speed up
             building a large library in several steps. The resulting archive
             can not be used with the linker.  In order to build a symbol
             table, you must omit the S modifier on the last execution of ar,
             or you must run ranlib on the archive.

     u       Normally, ar r ...inserts all files listed into the archive. If
             you would like to insert only those of the files you list that
             are newer than existing members of the same names, use this
             modifier. The u modifier is allowed only for the operation r
             (replace). In particular, the combination qu is not allowed,
             since checking the timestamps would lose any speed advantage from
             the operation q.

     v       This modifier requests the verbose version of an operation. Many
             operations display additional information, such as filenames
             processed, when the modifier v is appended.

     V       This modifier shows the version number of ar.

     ar ignores an initial option spelt -X32_64, for compatibility with AIX.
     The behaviour produced by this option is the default for GNU ar.  ar does
     not support any of the other -X options; in particular, it does not
     support [-X32] which is the default for AIX ar.

   Controlling ar(with) a Script
           ar -M [ <script ]

     If you use the single command-line option -M with ar, you can control its
     operation with a rudimentary command language. This form of ar operates
     interactively if standard input is coming directly from a terminal.
     During interactive use, ar prompts for input (the prompt is AR >), and
     continues executing even after errors. If you redirect standard input to
     a script file, no prompts are issued, and ar abandons execution (with a
     nonzero exit code) on any error.

     The ar command language is not designed to be equivalent to the command-
     line options; in fact, it provides somewhat less control over archives.
     The only purpose of the command language is to ease the transition to GNU
     ar for developers who already have scripts written for the MRI
     "librarian" program.

     The syntax for the ar command language is straightforward:

        commands are recognized in upper or lower case; for example, LIST is
         the same as list.  In the following descriptions, commands are shown
         in upper case for clarity.

        a single command may appear on each line; it is the first word on the
         line.

        empty lines are allowed, and have no effect.

        comments are allowed; text after either of the characters * or ; is
         ignored.

        Whenever you use a list of names as part of the argument to an ar
         command, you can separate the individual names with either commas or
         blanks.  Commas are shown in the explanations below, for clarity.

        + is used as a line continuation character; if + appears at the end
         of a line, the text on the following line is considered part of the
         current command.

     Here are the commands you can use in ar scripts, or when using ar
     interactively. Three of them have special significance:

     OPEN or CREATE specify a current archive, which is a temporary file
     required for most of the other commands.

     SAVE commits the changes so far specified by the script. Prior to SAVE,
     commands affect only the temporary copy of the current archive.

     ADDLIB archive

     ADDLIB archive (module, module, ... module)
             Add all the contents of archive (or, if specified, each named
             module from archive) to the current archive.

             Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.

     ADDMOD member, member, ... member
             Add each named member as a module in the current archive.

             Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.

     CLEAR   Discard the contents of the current archive, canceling the effect
             of any operations since the last SAVE.  May be executed (with no
             effect) even if no current archive is specified.

     CREATE archive
             Creates an archive, and makes it the current archive (required
             for many other commands). The new archive is created with a
             temporary name; it is not actually saved as archive until you use
             SAVE.  You can overwrite existing archives; similarly, the
             contents of any existing file named archive will not be destroyed
             until SAVE.

     DELETE module, module, ... module
             Delete each listed module from the current archive; equivalent to
             ar -d archive module ... module.

             Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.

     DIRECTORY archive (module, ... module)

     DIRECTORY archive (module, ... module) outputfile
             List each named module present in archive.  The separate command
             VERBOSE specifies the form of the output: when verbose output is
             off, output is like that of ar -t archive module....  When
             verbose output is on, the listing is like ar -tv archive
             module....

             Output normally goes to the standard output stream; however, if
             you specify outputfile as a final argument, ar directs the output
             to that file.

     END     Exit from ar, with a 0 exit code to indicate successful
             completion. This command does not save the output file; if you
             have changed the current archive since the last SAVE command,
             those changes are lost.

     EXTRACT module, module, ... module
             Extract each named module from the current archive, writing them
             into the current directory as separate files. Equivalent to ar -x
             archive module....

             Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.

     LIST    Display full contents of the current archive, in "verbose" style
             regardless of the state of VERBOSE.  The effect is like ar tv
             archive.  (This single command is a GNU ar enhancement, rather
             than present for MRI compatibility.)

             Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.

     OPEN archive
             Opens an existing archive for use as the current archive
             (required for many other commands). Any changes as the result of
             subsequent commands will not actually affect archive until you
             next use SAVE.

     REPLACE module, module, ... module
             In the current archive, replace each existing module (named in
             the REPLACE arguments) from files in the current working
             directory. To execute this command without errors, both the file,
             and the module in the current archive, must exist.

             Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.

     VERBOSE
             Toggle an internal flag governing the output from DIRECTORY.
             When the flag is on, DIRECTORY output matches output from ar -tv
             ....

     SAVE    Commit your changes to the current archive, and actually save it
             as a file with the name specified in the last CREATE or OPEN
             command.

             Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.

nm
           nm [-a|--debug-syms] [-g|--extern-only]
              [-B] [-C|--demangle[=style]] [-D|--dynamic]
              [-S|--print-size] [-s|--print-armap]
              [-A|-o|--print-file-name][--special-syms]
              [-n|-v|--numeric-sort] [-p|--no-sort]
              [-r|--reverse-sort] [--size-sort] [-u|--undefined-only]
              [-t radix|--radix=radix] [-P|--portability]
              [--target=bfdname] [-fformat|--format=format]
              [--defined-only] [-l|--line-numbers] [--no-demangle]
              [-V|--version] [-X 32_64] [--help]  [objfile...]

     GNU nm lists the symbols from object files objfile .... If no object
     files are listed as arguments, nm assumes the file a.out.

     For each symbol, nm shows:

        The symbol value, in the radix selected by options (see below), or
         hexadecimal by default.

        The symbol type. At least the following types are used; others are,
         as well, depending on the object file format. If lowercase, the
         symbol is local; if uppercase, the symbol is global (external).

         A       The symbol's value is absolute, and will not be changed by
                 further linking.

         B       The symbol is in the uninitialized data section (known as
                 BSS).

         C       The symbol is common. Common symbols are uninitialized data.
                 When linking, multiple common symbols may appear with the
                 same name. If the symbol is defined anywhere, the common
                 symbols are treated as undefined references. For more details
                 on common symbols, see the discussion of --warn-common in
                 Options,,Linker options,ld.info,The GNU linker.

         D       The symbol is in the initialized data section.

         G       The symbol is in an initialized data section for small
                 objects. Some object file formats permit more efficient
                 access to small data objects, such as a global int variable
                 as opposed to a large global array.

         I       The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol. This
                 is a GNU extension to the a.out object file format which is
                 rarely used.

         N       The symbol is a debugging symbol.

         R       The symbol is in a read only data section.

         S       The symbol is in an uninitialized data section for small
                 objects.

         T       The symbol is in the text (code) section.

         U       The symbol is undefined.

         V       The symbol is a weak object. When a weak defined symbol is
                 linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined
                 symbol is used with no error. When a weak undefined symbol is
                 linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the weak
                 symbol becomes zero with no error.

         W       The symbol is a weak symbol that has not been specifically
                 tagged as a weak object symbol. When a weak defined symbol is
                 linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined
                 symbol is used with no error. When a weak undefined symbol is
                 linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the symbol
                 is determined in a system-specific manner without error. On
                 some systems, uppercase indicates that a default value has
                 been specified.

         -       The symbol is a stabs symbol in an a.out object file. In this
                 case, the next values printed are the stabs other field, the
                 stabs desc field, and the stab type. Stabs symbols are used
                 to hold debugging information. For more information, see
                 Top,Stabs,Stabs Overview,stabs.info, The "stabs" debug
                 format.

         ?       The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.

        The symbol name.

     The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
     equivalent.

     -A

     -o

     --print-file-name
             Precede each symbol by the name of the input file (or archive
             member) in which it was found, rather than identifying the input
             file once only, before all of its symbols.

     -a

     --debug-syms
             Display all symbols, even debugger-only symbols; normally these
             are not listed.

     -B      The same as [--format=bsd] (for compatibility with the MIPS nm).

     -C

     --demangle[= style]
             Decode ( demangle) low-level symbol names into user-level names.
             Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
             this makes C++ function names readable.  Different compilers have
             different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
             can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
             compiler.See Section ``c++filt'', for more information on
             demangling.

     --no-demangle
             Do not demangle low-level symbol names. This is the default.

     -D

     --dynamic
             Display the dynamic symbols rather than the normal symbols. This
             is only meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of
             shared libraries.

     -f format

     --format= format
             Use the output format format, which can be bsd, sysv, or posix.
             The default is bsd.  Only the first character of format is
             significant; it can be either upper or lower case.

     -g

     --extern-only
             Display only external symbols.

     -l

     --line-numbers
             For each symbol, use debugging information to try to find a
             filename and line number. For a defined symbol, look for the line
             number of the address of the symbol. For an undefined symbol,
             look for the line number of a relocation entry which refers to
             the symbol. If line number information can be found, print it
             after the other symbol information.

     -n

     -v

     --numeric-sort
             Sort symbols numerically by their addresses, rather than
             alphabetically by their names.

     -p

     --no-sort
             Do not bother to sort the symbols in any order; print them in the
             order encountered.

     -P

     --portability
             Use the POSIX.2 standard output format instead of the default
             format. Equivalent to -f posix.

     -S

     --print-size
             Print size, not the value, of defined symbols for the bsd output
             format.

     -s

     --print-armap
             When listing symbols from archive members, include the index: a
             mapping (stored in the archive by ar or ranlib) of which modules
             contain definitions for which names.

     -r

     --reverse-sort
             Reverse the order of the sort (whether numeric or alphabetic);
             let the last come first.

     --size-sort
             Sort symbols by size. The size is computed as the difference
             between the value of the symbol and the value of the symbol with
             the next higher value. If the bsd output format is used the size
             of the symbol is printed, rather than the value, and -S must be
             used in order both size and value to be printed.

     --special-syms
             Display symbols which have a target-specific special meaning.
             These symbols are usually used by the target for some special
             processing and are not normally helpful when included included in
             the normal symbol lists. For example for ARM targets this option
             would skip the mapping symbols used to mark transitions between
             ARM code, THUMB code and data.

     -t radix

     --radix= radix
             Use radix as the radix for printing the symbol values. It must be
             d for decimal, o for octal, or x for hexadecimal.

     --target= bfdname
             Specify an object code format other than your system's default
             format.See Section ``Target Selection'', for more information.

     -u

     --undefined-only
             Display only undefined symbols (those external to each object
             file).

     --defined-only
             Display only defined symbols for each object file.

     -V

     --version
             Show the version number of nm and exit.

     -X      This option is ignored for compatibility with the AIX version of
             nm.  It takes one parameter which must be the string [32_64].
             The default mode of AIX nm corresponds to [-X 32], which is not
             supported by GNU nm.

     --help  Show a summary of the options to nm and exit.

objcopy
           objcopy [-F bfdname|--target=bfdname]
                   [-I bfdname|--input-target=bfdname]
                   [-O bfdname|--output-target=bfdname]
                   [-B bfdarch|--binary-architecture=bfdarch]
                   [-S|--strip-all]
                   [-g|--strip-debug]
                   [-K symbolname|--keep-symbol=symbolname]
                   [-N symbolname|--strip-symbol=symbolname]
                   [--strip-unneeded-symbol=symbolname]
                   [-G symbolname|--keep-global-symbol=symbolname]
                   [--localize-hidden]
                   [-L symbolname|--localize-symbol=symbolname]
                   [--globalize-symbol=symbolname]
                   [-W symbolname|--weaken-symbol=symbolname]
                   [-w|--wildcard]
                   [-x|--discard-all]
                   [-X|--discard-locals]
                   [-b byte|--byte=byte]
                   [-i interleave|--interleave=interleave]
                   [-j sectionname|--only-section=sectionname]
                   [-R sectionname|--remove-section=sectionname]
                   [-p|--preserve-dates]
                   [--debugging]
                   [--gap-fill=val]
                   [--pad-to=address]
                   [--set-start=val]
                   [--adjust-start=incr]
                   [--change-addresses=incr]
                   [--change-section-address section{=,+,-}val]
                   [--change-section-lma section{=,+,-}val]
                   [--change-section-vma section{=,+,-}val]
                   [--change-warnings] [--no-change-warnings]
                   [--set-section-flags section=flags]
                   [--add-section sectionname=filename]
                   [--rename-section oldname=newname[,flags]]
                   [--change-leading-char] [--remove-leading-char]
                   [--reverse-bytes=num]
                   [--srec-len=ival] [--srec-forceS3]
                   [--redefine-sym old=new]
                   [--redefine-syms=filename]
                   [--weaken]
                   [--keep-symbols=filename]
                   [--strip-symbols=filename]
                   [--strip-unneeded-symbols=filename]
                   [--keep-global-symbols=filename]
                   [--localize-symbols=filename]
                   [--globalize-symbols=filename]
                   [--weaken-symbols=filename]
                   [--alt-machine-code=index]
                   [--prefix-symbols=string]
                   [--prefix-sections=string]
                   [--prefix-alloc-sections=string]
                   [--add-GNU-debuglink=path-to-file]
                   [--keep-file-symbols]
                   [--only-keep-debug]
                   [--extract-symbol]
                   [--writable-text]
                   [--readonly-text]
                   [--pure]
                   [--impure]
                   [-v|--verbose]
                   [-V|--version]
                   [--help] [--info]
                   infile [outfile]

     The GNU objcopy utility copies the contents of an object file to another.
     objcopy uses the GNU bfd Library to read and write the object files. It
     can write the destination object file in a format different from that of
     the source object file. The exact behavior of objcopy is controlled by
     command-line options. Note that objcopy should be able to copy a fully
     linked file between any two formats. However, copying a relocatable
     object file between any two formats may not work as expected.

     objcopy creates temporary files to do its translations and deletes them
     afterward.  objcopy uses bfd to do all its translation work; it has
     access to all the formats described in bfd and thus is able to recognize
     most formats without being told explicitly.See Section ``BFD''.

     objcopy can be used to generate S-records by using an output target of
     srec (e.g., use -O srec).

     objcopy can be used to generate a raw binary file by using an output
     target of binary (e.g., use [-O binary]).  When objcopy generates a raw
     binary file, it will essentially produce a memory dump of the contents of
     the input object file. All symbols and relocation information will be
     discarded. The memory dump will start at the load address of the lowest
     section copied into the output file.

     When generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful to
     use [-S] to remove sections containing debugging information. In some
     cases [-R] will be useful to remove sections which contain information
     that is not needed by the binary file.

     Note--- objcopy is not able to change the endianness of its input files.
     If the input format has an endianness (some formats do not), objcopy can
     only copy the inputs into file formats that have the same endianness or
     which have no endianness (e.g., srec).  (However, see the
     [--reverse-bytes] option.)

     infile

     outfile
             The input and output files, respectively. If you do not specify
             outfile, objcopy creates a temporary file and destructively
             renames the result with the name of infile.

     -I bfdname

     --input-target= bfdname
             Consider the source file's object format to be bfdname, rather
             than attempting to deduce it.See Section ``Target Selection'',
             for more information.

     -O bfdname

     --output-target= bfdname
             Write the output file using the object format bfdname.  See
             Section.Dq Target Selection , for more information.

     -F bfdname

     --target= bfdname
             Use bfdname as the object format for both the input and the
             output file; i.e., simply transfer data from source to
             destination with no translation.See Section ``Target Selection'',
             for more information.

     -B bfdarch

     --binary-architecture= bfdarch
             Useful when transforming a raw binary input file into an object
             file. In this case the output architecture can be set to bfdarch.
             This option will be ignored if the input file has a known
             bfdarch.  You can access this binary data inside a program by
             referencing the special symbols that are created by the
             conversion process. These symbols are called _binary_ objfile
             _start, _binary_ objfile _end and _binary_ objfile _size. e.g.
             you can transform a picture file into an object file and then
             access it in your code using these symbols.

     -j sectionname

     --only-section= sectionname
             Copy only the named section from the input file to the output
             file. This option may be given more than once. Note that using
             this option inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

     -R sectionname

     --remove-section= sectionname
             Remove any section named sectionname from the output file. This
             option may be given more than once. Note that using this option
             inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

     -S

     --strip-all
             Do not copy relocation and symbol information from the source
             file.

     -g

     --strip-debug
             Do not copy debugging symbols or sections from the source file.

     --strip-unneeded
             Strip all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

     -K symbolname

     --keep-symbol= symbolname
             When stripping symbols, keep symbol symbolname even if it would
             normally be stripped. This option may be given more than once.

     -N symbolname

     --strip-symbol= symbolname
             Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source file. This option
             may be given more than once.

     --strip-unneeded-symbol= symbolname
             Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source file unless it is
             needed by a relocation. This option may be given more than once.

     -G symbolname

     --keep-global-symbol= symbolname
             Keep only symbol symbolname global. Make all other symbols local
             to the file, so that they are not visible externally. This option
             may be given more than once.

     --localize-hidden
             In an ELF object, mark all symbols that have hidden or internal
             visibility as local. This option applies on top of symbol-
             specific localization options such as [-L].

     -L symbolname

     --localize-symbol= symbolname
             Make symbol symbolname local to the file, so that it is not
             visible externally. This option may be given more than once.

     -W symbolname

     --weaken-symbol= symbolname
             Make symbol symbolname weak. This option may be given more than
             once.

     --globalize-symbol= symbolname
             Give symbol symbolname global scoping so that it is visible
             outside of the file in which it is defined.  This option may be
             given more than once.

     -w

     --wildcard
             Permit regular expressions in symbolname s used in other command
             line options. The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\)
             and square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the
             symbol name. If the first character of the symbol name is the
             exclamation point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed
             for that symbol. For example:

                     -w -W !foo -W fo*

             would cause objcopy to weaken all symbols that start with "fo"
             except for the symbol "foo".

     -x

     --discard-all
             Do not copy non-global symbols from the source file.

     -X

     --discard-locals
             Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually
             start with L or ..)

     -b byte

     --byte= byte
             Keep only every byte th byte of the input file (header data is
             not affected).  byte can be in the range from 0 to interleave -1,
             where interleave is given by the [-i] or [--interleave] option,
             or the default of 4. This option is useful for creating files to
             program rom. It is typically used with an srec output target.

     -i interleave

     --interleave= interleave
             Only copy one out of every interleave bytes. Select which byte to
             copy with the [-b] or [--byte] option. The default is 4.  objcopy
             ignores this option if you do not specify either [-b] or
             [--byte].

     -p

     --preserve-dates
             Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be
             the same as those of the input file.

     --debugging
             Convert debugging information, if possible. This is not the
             default because only certain debugging formats are supported, and
             the conversion process can be time consuming.

     --gap-fill val
             Fill gaps between sections with val.  This operation applies to
             the load address (LMA) of the sections. It is done by increasing
             the size of the section with the lower address, and filling in
             the extra space created with val.

     --pad-to address
             Pad the output file up to the load address address.  This is done
             by increasing the size of the last section. The extra space is
             filled in with the value specified by [--gap-fill] (default
             zero).

     --set-start val
             Set the start address of the new file to val.  Not all object
             file formats support setting the start address.

     --change-start incr

     --adjust-start incr
             Change the start address by adding incr.  Not all object file
             formats support setting the start address.

     --change-addresses incr

     --adjust-vma incr
             Change the VMA and LMA addresses of all sections, as well as the
             start address, by adding incr.  Some object file formats do not
             permit section addresses to be changed arbitrarily.  Note that
             this does not relocate the sections; if the program expects
             sections to be loaded at a certain address, and this option is
             used to change the sections such that they are loaded at a
             different address, the program may fail.

     --change-section-address section{=,+,-} val

     --adjust-section-vma section{=,+,-} val
             Set or change both the VMA address and the LMA address of the
             named section.  If = is used, the section address is set to val.
             Otherwise, val is added to or subtracted from the section
             address. See the comments under [--change-addresses], above. If
             section does not exist in the input file, a warning will be
             issued, unless [--no-change-warnings] is used.

     --change-section-lma section{=,+,-} val
             Set or change the LMA address of the named section.  The LMA
             address is the address where the section will be loaded into
             memory at program load time. Normally this is the same as the VMA
             address, which is the address of the section at program run time,
             but on some systems, especially those where a program is held in
             ROM, the two can be different. If = is used, the section address
             is set to val.  Otherwise, val is added to or subtracted from the
             section address. See the comments under [--change-addresses],
             above. If section does not exist in the input file, a warning
             will be issued, unless [--no-change-warnings] is used.

     --change-section-vma section{=,+,-} val
             Set or change the VMA address of the named section.  The VMA
             address is the address where the section will be located once the
             program has started executing. Normally this is the same as the
             LMA address, which is the address where the section will be
             loaded into memory, but on some systems, especially those where a
             program is held in ROM, the two can be different. If = is used,
             the section address is set to val.  Otherwise, val is added to or
             subtracted from the section address. See the comments under
             [--change-addresses], above. If section does not exist in the
             input file, a warning will be issued, unless
             [--no-change-warnings] is used.

     --change-warnings

     --adjust-warnings
             If [--change-section-address] or [--change-section-lma] or
             [--change-section-vma] is used, and the named section does not
             exist, issue a warning. This is the default.

     --no-change-warnings

     --no-adjust-warnings
             Do not issue a warning if [--change-section-address] or
             [--adjust-section-lma] or [--adjust-section-vma] is used, even if
             the named section does not exist.

     --set-section-flags section= flags
             Set the flags for the named section. The flags argument is a
             comma separated string of flag names. The recognized names are
             alloc, contents, load, noload, readonly, code, data, rom, share,
             and debug.  You can set the contents flag for a section which
             does not have contents, but it is not meaningful to clear the
             contents flag of a section which does have contents--just remove
             the section instead.  Not all flags are meaningful for all object
             file formats.

     --add-section sectionname= filename
             Add a new section named sectionname while copying the file. The
             contents of the new section are taken from the file filename.
             The size of the section will be the size of the file. This option
             only works on file formats which can support sections with
             arbitrary names.

     --rename-section oldname= newname[, flags]
             Rename a section from oldname to newname, optionally changing the
             section's flags to flags in the process. This has the advantage
             over usng a linker script to perform the rename in that the
             output stays as an object file and does not become a linked
             executable.

             This option is particularly helpful when the input format is
             binary, since this will always create a section called .data. If
             for example, you wanted instead to create a section called
             .rodata containing binary data you could use the following
             command line to achieve it:

                     objcopy -I binary -O <output_format> -B <architecture> \
                      --rename-section .data=.rodata,alloc,load,readonly,data,contents \
                      <input_binary_file> <output_object_file>

     --change-leading-char
             Some object file formats use special characters at the start of
             symbols. The most common such character is underscore, which
             compilers often add before every symbol. This option tells
             objcopy to change the leading character of every symbol when it
             converts between object file formats. If the object file formats
             use the same leading character, this option has no effect.
             Otherwise, it will add a character, or remove a character, or
             change a character, as appropriate.

     --remove-leading-char
             If the first character of a global symbol is a special symbol
             leading character used by the object file format, remove the
             character. The most common symbol leading character is
             underscore. This option will remove a leading underscore from all
             global symbols. This can be useful if you want to link together
             objects of different file formats with different conventions for
             symbol names. This is different from [--change-leading-char]
             because it always changes the symbol name when appropriate,
             regardless of the object file format of the output file.

     --reverse-bytes= num
             Reverse the bytes in a section with output contents. A section
             length must be evenly divisible by the value given in order for
             the swap to be able to take place. Reversing takes place before
             the interleaving is performed.

             This option is used typically in generating ROM images for
             problematic target systems. For example, on some target boards,
             the 32-bit words fetched from 8-bit ROMs are re-assembled in
             little-endian byte order regardless of the CPU byte order.
             Depending on the programming model, the endianness of the ROM may
             need to be modified.

             Consider a simple file with a section containing the following
             eight bytes: 12345678.

             Using --reverse-bytes=2 for the above example, the bytes in the
             output file would be ordered 21436587.

             Using --reverse-bytes=4 for the above example, the bytes in the
             output file would be ordered 43218765.

             By using --reverse-bytes=2 for the above example, followed by
             --reverse-bytes=4 on the output file, the bytes in the second
             output file would be ordered 34127856.

     --srec-len= ival
             Meaningful only for srec output. Set the maximum length of the
             Srecords being produced to ival.  This length covers both
             address, data and crc fields.

     --srec-forceS3
             Meaningful only for srec output. Avoid generation of S1/S2
             records, creating S3-only record format.

     --redefine-sym old= new
             Change the name of a symbol old, to new.  This can be useful when
             one is trying link two things together for which you have no
             source, and there are name collisions.

     --redefine-syms= filename
             Apply [--redefine-sym] to each symbol pair " old new  listed in
             the file filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one
             symbol pair per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
             character. This option may be given more than once.

     --weaken
             Change all global symbols in the file to be weak. This can be
             useful when building an object which will be linked against other
             objects using the [-R] option to the linker. This option is only
             effective when using an object file format which supports weak
             symbols.

     --keep-symbols= filename
             Apply [--keep-symbol] option to each symbol listed in the file
             filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
             per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
             This option may be given more than once.

     --strip-symbols= filename
             Apply [--strip-symbol] option to each symbol listed in the file
             filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
             per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
             This option may be given more than once.

     --strip-unneeded-symbols= filename
             Apply [--strip-unneeded-symbol] option to each symbol listed in
             the file filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one
             symbol name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
             character. This option may be given more than once.

     --keep-global-symbols= filename
             Apply [--keep-global-symbol] option to each symbol listed in the
             file filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol
             name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
             character. This option may be given more than once.

     --localize-symbols= filename
             Apply [--localize-symbol] option to each symbol listed in the
             file filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol
             name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
             character. This option may be given more than once.

     --globalize-symbols= filename
             Apply [--globalize-symbol] option to each symbol listed in the
             file filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol
             name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
             character. This option may be given more than once.

     --weaken-symbols= filename
             Apply [--weaken-symbol] option to each symbol listed in the file
             filename.  filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
             per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
             This option may be given more than once.

     --alt-machine-code= index
             If the output architecture has alternate machine codes, use the
             index th code instead of the default one. This is useful in case
             a machine is assigned an official code and the tool-chain adopts
             the new code, but other applications still depend on the original
             code being used. For ELF based architectures if the index
             alternative does not exist then the value is treated as an
             absolute number to be stored in the e_machine field of the ELF
             header.

     --writable-text
             Mark the output text as writable. This option isn't meaningful
             for all object file formats.

     --readonly-text
             Make the output text write protected. This option isn't
             meaningful for all object file formats.

     --pure  Mark the output file as demand paged. This option isn't
             meaningful for all object file formats.

     --impure
             Mark the output file as impure. This option isn't meaningful for
             all object file formats.

     --prefix-symbols= string
             Prefix all symbols in the output file with string.

     --prefix-sections= string
             Prefix all section names in the output file with string.

     --prefix-alloc-sections= string
             Prefix all the names of all allocated sections in the output file
             with string.

     --add-GNU-debuglink= path-to-file
             Creates a .GNU_debuglink section which contains a reference to
             path-to-file and adds it to the output file.

     --keep-file-symbols
             When stripping a file, perhaps with [--strip-debug] or
             [--strip-unneeded], retain any symbols specifying source file
             names, which would otherwise get stripped.

     --only-keep-debug
             Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
             stripped by [--strip-debug] and leaving the debugging sections
             intact. In ELF files, this preserves all note sections in the
             output.

             The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction
             with [--add-GNU-debuglink] to create a two part executable. One a
             stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
             distribution and the second a debugging information file which is
             only needed if debugging abilities are required. The suggested
             procedure to create these files is as follows:

             1.   Link the executable as normal. Assuming that is is called
                  foo then...

             2.   Run objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg to create a file
                  containing the debugging info.

             3.   Run objcopy --strip-debug foo to create a stripped
                  executable.

             4.   Run objcopy --add-GNU-debuglink=foo.dbg foo to add a link to
                  the debugging info into the stripped executable.

             Note - the choice of .dbg as an extension for the debug info file
             is arbitrary. Also the --only-keep-debug step is optional. You
             could instead do this:

             1.   Link the executable as normal.

             2.   Copy foo to foo.full

             3.   Run objcopy --strip-debug foo

             4.   Run objcopy --add-GNU-debuglink=foo.full foo

             i.e., the file pointed to by the [--add-GNU-debuglink] can be the
             full executable. It does not have to be a file created by the
             [--only-keep-debug] switch.

             Note - this switch is only intended for use on fully linked
             files. It does not make sense to use it on object files where the
             debugging information may be incomplete. Besides the
             GNU_debuglink feature currently only supports the presence of one
             filename containing debugging information, not multiple filenames
             on a one-per-object-file basis.

     --extract-symbol
             Keep the file's section flags and symbols but remove all section
             data. Specifically, the option:

                sets the virtual and load addresses of every section to zero;

                removes the contents of all sections;

                sets the size of every section to zero; and

                sets the file's start address to zero.

             This option is used to build a .sym file for a VxWorks kernel. It
             can also be a useful way of reducing the size of a
             [--just-symbols] linker input file.

     -V

     --version
             Show the version number of objcopy.

     -v

     --verbose
             Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of
             archives, objcopy -V lists all members of the archive.

     --help  Show a summary of the options to objcopy.

     --info  Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
             available.

objdump
           objdump [-a|--archive-headers]
                   [-b bfdname|--target=bfdname]
                   [-C|--demangle[=style] ]
                   [-d|--disassemble]
                   [-D|--disassemble-all]
                   [-z|--disassemble-zeroes]
                   [-EB|-EL|--endian={big | little }]
                   [-f|--file-headers]
                   [--file-start-context]
                   [-g|--debugging]
                   [-e|--debugging-tags]
                   [-h|--section-headers|--headers]
                   [-i|--info]
                   [-j section|--section=section]
                   [-l|--line-numbers]
                   [-S|--source]
                   [-m machine|--architecture=machine]
                   [-M options|--disassembler-options=options]
                   [-p|--private-headers]
                   [-r|--reloc]
                   [-R|--dynamic-reloc]
                   [-s|--full-contents]
                   [-W|--dwarf]
                   [-G|--stabs]
                   [-t|--syms]
                   [-T|--dynamic-syms]
                   [-x|--all-headers]
                   [-w|--wide]
                   [--start-address=address]
                   [--stop-address=address]
                   [--prefix-addresses]
                   [--[no-]show-raw-insn]
                   [--adjust-vma=offset]
                   [--special-syms]
                   [-V|--version]
                   [-H|--help]
                   objfile...

     objdump displays information about one or more object files. The options
     control what particular information to display. This information is
     mostly useful to programmers who are working on the compilation tools, as
     opposed to programmers who just want their program to compile and work.

     objfile ...are the object files to be examined. When you specify
     archives, objdump shows information on each of the member object files.

     The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
     equivalent.  At least one option from the list
     [-a,-d,-D,-e,-f,-g,-G,-h,-H,-p,-r,-R,-s,-S,-t,-T,-V,-x] must be given.

     -a

     --archive-header
             If any of the objfile files are archives, display the archive
             header information (in a format similar to ls -l).  Besides the
             information you could list with ar tv, objdump -a shows the
             object file format of each archive member.

     --adjust-vma= offset
             When dumping information, first add offset to all the section
             addresses. This is useful if the section addresses do not
             correspond to the symbol table, which can happen when putting
             sections at particular addresses when using a format which can
             not represent section addresses, such as a.out.

     -b bfdname

     --target= bfdname
             Specify that the object-code format for the object files is
             bfdname.  This option may not be necessary; objdump can
             automatically recognize many formats.

             For example,

                   objdump -b oasys -m vax -h fu.o
             displays summary information from the section headers ( [-h]) of
             fu.o, which is explicitly identified ( [-m]) as a VAX object file
             in the format produced by Oasys compilers. You can list the
             formats available with the [-i] option.See Section ``Target
             Selection'', for more information.

     -C

     --demangle[= style]
             Decode ( demangle) low-level symbol names into user-level names.
             Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
             this makes C++ function names readable.  Different compilers have
             different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
             can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
             compiler.See Section ``c++filt'', for more information on
             demangling.

     -g

     --debugging
             Display debugging information. This attempts to parse debugging
             information stored in the file and print it out using a C like
             syntax. Only certain types of debugging information have been
             implemented. Some other types are supported by readelf(-w).  See
             Section.Dq readelf .

     -e

     --debugging-tags
             Like [-g], but the information is generated in a format
             compatible with ctags tool.

     -d

     --disassemble
             Display the assembler mnemonics for the machine instructions from
             objfile.  This option only disassembles those sections which are
             expected to contain instructions.

     -D

     --disassemble-all
             Like [-d], but disassemble the contents of all sections, not just
             those expected to contain instructions.

     --prefix-addresses
             When disassembling, print the complete address on each line. This
             is the older disassembly format.

     -EB

     -EL

     --endian={big|little}
             Specify the endianness of the object files. This only affects
             disassembly.  This can be useful when disassembling a file format
             which does not describe endianness information, such as S-
             records.

     -f

     --file-headers
             Display summary information from the overall header of each of
             the objfile files.

     --file-start-context
             Specify that when displaying interlisted source code/disassembly
             (assumes [-S]) from a file that has not yet been displayed,
             extend the context to the start of the file.

     -h

     --section-headers

     --headers
             Display summary information from the section headers of the
             object file.

             File segments may be relocated to nonstandard addresses, for
             example by using the [-Ttext], [-Tdata], or [-Tbss] options to
             ld.  However, some object file formats, such as a.out, do not
             store the starting address of the file segments. In those
             situations, although ld relocates the sections correctly, using
             objdump -h to list the file section headers cannot show the
             correct addresses. Instead, it shows the usual addresses, which
             are implicit for the target.

     -H

     --help  Print a summary of the options to objdump and exit.

     -i

     --info  Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
             available for specification with [-b] or [-m].

     -j name

     --section= name
             Display information only for section name.

     -l

     --line-numbers
             Label the display (using debugging information) with the filename
             and source line numbers corresponding to the object code or
             relocs shown. Only useful with [-d], [-D], or [-r].

     -m machine

     --architecture= machine
             Specify the architecture to use when disassembling object files.
             This can be useful when disassembling object files which do not
             describe architecture information, such as S-records. You can
             list the available architectures with the [-i] option.

     -M options

     --disassembler-options= options
             Pass target specific information to the disassembler. Only
             supported on some targets. If it is necessary to specify more
             than one disassembler option then multiple [-M] options can be
             used or can be placed together into a comma separated list.

             If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch can be used
             to select which register name set is used during disassembler.
             Specifying [-M reg-names-std] (the default) will select the
             register names as used in ARM's instruction set documentation,
             but with register 13 called 'sp', register 14 called 'lr' and
             register 15 called 'pc'. Specifying [-M reg-names-apcs] will
             select the name set used by the ARM Procedure Call Standard,
             whilst specifying [-M reg-names-raw] will just use r followed by
             the register number.

             There are also two variants on the APCS register naming scheme
             enabled by [-M reg-names-atpcs] and [-M reg-names-special-atpcs]
             which use the ARM/Thumb Procedure Call Standard naming
             conventions. (Either with the normal register names or the
             special register names).

             This option can also be used for ARM architectures to force the
             disassembler to interpret all instructions as Thumb instructions
             by using the switch [--disassembler-options=force-thumb].  This
             can be useful when attempting to disassemble thumb code produced
             by other compilers.

             For the x86, some of the options duplicate functions of the [-m]
             switch, but allow finer grained control. Multiple selections from
             the following may be specified as a comma separated string.
             [x86-64], [i386] and [i8086] select disassembly for the given
             architecture.  [intel] and [att] select between intel syntax mode
             and AT&T syntax mode.  [addr64], [addr32], [addr16], [data32] and
             [data16] specify the default address size and operand size. These
             four options will be overridden if [x86-64], [i386] or [i8086]
             appear later in the option string. Lastly, [suffix], when in AT&T
             mode, instructs the disassembler to print a mnemonic suffix even
             when the suffix could be inferred by the operands.

             For PPC, [booke], [booke32] and [booke64] select disassembly of
             BookE instructions.  [32] and [64] select PowerPC and PowerPC64
             disassembly, respectively.  [e300] selects disassembly for the
             e300 family.  [440] selects disassembly for the PowerPC 440.

             For MIPS, this option controls the printing of instruction
             mnemonic names and register names in disassembled instructions.
             Multiple selections from the following may be specified as a
             comma separated string, and invalid options are ignored:

             no-aliases
                     Print the 'raw' instruction mnemonic instead of some
                     pseudo instruction mnemonic.  I.e., print 'daddu' or 'or'
                     instead of 'move', 'sll' instead of 'nop', etc.

             gpr-names= ABI
                     Print GPR (general-purpose register) names as appropriate
                     for the specified ABI. By default, GPR names are selected
                     according to the ABI of the binary being disassembled.

             fpr-names= ABI
                     Print FPR (floating-point register) names as appropriate
                     for the specified ABI. By default, FPR numbers are
                     printed rather than names.

             cp0-names= ARCH
                     Print CP0 (system control coprocessor; coprocessor 0)
                     register names as appropriate for the CPU or architecture
                     specified by ARCH.  By default, CP0 register names are
                     selected according to the architecture and CPU of the
                     binary being disassembled.

             hwr-names= ARCH
                     Print HWR (hardware register, used by the rdhwr
                     instruction) names as appropriate for the CPU or
                     architecture specified by ARCH.  By default, HWR names
                     are selected according to the architecture and CPU of the
                     binary being disassembled.

             reg-names= ABI
                     Print GPR and FPR names as appropriate for the selected
                     ABI.

             reg-names= ARCH
                     Print CPU-specific register names (CP0 register and HWR
                     names) as appropriate for the selected CPU or
                     architecture.

             For any of the options listed above, ABI or ARCH may be specified
             as numeric to have numbers printed rather than names, for the
             selected types of registers.  You can list the available values
             of ABI and ARCH using the [--help] option.

             For VAX, you can specify function entry addresses with [-M
             entry:0xf00ba].  You can use this multiple times to properly
             disassemble VAX binary files that don't contain symbol tables
             (like ROM dumps). In these cases, the function entry mask would
             otherwise be decoded as VAX instructions, which would probably
             lead the rest of the function being wrongly disassembled.

     -p

     --private-headers
             Print information that is specific to the object file format. The
             exact information printed depends upon the object file format.
             For some object file formats, no additional information is
             printed.

     -r

     --reloc
             Print the relocation entries of the file. If used with [-d] or
             [-D], the relocations are printed interspersed with the
             disassembly.

     -R

     --dynamic-reloc
             Print the dynamic relocation entries of the file. This is only
             meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
             libraries.

     -s

     --full-contents
             Display the full contents of any sections requested. By default
             all non-empty sections are displayed.

     -S

     --source
             Display source code intermixed with disassembly, if possible.
             Implies [-d].

     --show-raw-insn
             When disassembling instructions, print the instruction in hex as
             well as in symbolic form. This is the default except when
             [--prefix-addresses] is used.

     --no-show-raw-insn
             When disassembling instructions, do not print the instruction
             bytes. This is the default when [--prefix-addresses] is used.

     -W

     --dwarf
             Displays the contents of the DWARF debug sections in the file, if
             any are present.

     -G

     --stabs
             Display the full contents of any sections requested. Display the
             contents of the .stab and .stab.index and .stab.excl sections
             from an ELF file. This is only useful on systems (such as Solaris
             2.0) in which .stab debugging symbol-table entries are carried in
             an ELF section. In most other file formats, debugging symbol-
             table entries are interleaved with linkage symbols, and are
             visible in the [--syms] output. For more information on stabs
             symbols, see Top,Stabs,Stabs Overview,stabs.info, The "stabs"
             debug format.

     --start-address= address
             Start displaying data at the specified address. This affects the
             output of the [-d], [-r] and [-s] options.

     --stop-address= address
             Stop displaying data at the specified address. This affects the
             output of the [-d], [-r] and [-s] options.

     -t

     --syms  Print the symbol table entries of the file. This is similar to
             the information provided by the nm program.

     -T

     --dynamic-syms
             Print the dynamic symbol table entries of the file. This is only
             meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
             libraries. This is similar to the information provided by the nm
             program when given the [-D] ( [--dynamic]) option.

     --special-syms
             When displaying symbols include those which the target considers
             to be special in some way and which would not normally be of
             interest to the user.

     -V

     --version
             Print the version number of objdump and exit.

     -x

     --all-headers
             Display all available header information, including the symbol
             table and relocation entries. Using [-x] is equivalent to
             specifying all of [-a -f -h -p -r -t].

     -w

     --wide  Format some lines for output devices that have more than 80
             columns. Also do not truncate symbol names when they are
             displayed.

     -z

     --disassemble-zeroes
             Normally the disassembly output will skip blocks of zeroes. This
             option directs the disassembler to disassemble those blocks, just
             like any other data.

ranlib
           ranlib [-vV] archive

     ranlib generates an index to the contents of an archive and stores it in
     the archive.  The index lists each symbol defined by a member of an
     archive that is a relocatable object file.

     You may use nm -s or nm --print-armap to list this index.

     An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library and allows
     routines in the library to call each other without regard to their
     placement in the archive.

     The GNU ranlib program is another form of GNU ar; running ranlib is
     completely equivalent to executing ar -s.  See Section.Dq ar .

     -v

     -V

     --version
             Show the version number of ranlib.

size
           size [-A|-B|--format=compatibility]
                [--help]
                [-d|-o|-x|--radix=number]
                [-t|--totals]
                [--target=bfdname] [-V|--version]
                [objfile...]

     The GNU size utility lists the section sizes---and the total size---for
     each of the object or archive files objfile in its argument list. By
     default, one line of output is generated for each object file or each
     module in an archive.

     objfile ...are the object files to be examined. If none are specified,
     the file a.out will be used.

     The command line options have the following meanings:

     -A

     -B

     --format= compatibility
             Using one of these options, you can choose whether the output
             from GNU size resembles output from System V size (using [-A], or
             [--format=sysv]), or Berkeley size (using [-B], or
             [--format=berkeley]).  The default is the one-line format similar
             to Berkeley's.

             Here is an example of the Berkeley (default) format of output
             from size:

                   $ size --format=Berkeley ranlib size
                   text    data    bss     dec     hex     filename
                   294880  81920   11592   388392  5ed28   ranlib
                   294880  81920   11888   388688  5ee50   size

             This is the same data, but displayed closer to System V
             conventions:

                   $ size --format=SysV ranlib size
                   ranlib  :
                   section         size         addr
                   .text         294880         8192
                   .data          81920       303104
                   .bss           11592       385024
                   Total         388392

                   size  :
                   section         size         addr
                   .text         294880         8192
                   .data          81920       303104
                   .bss           11888       385024
                   Total         388688

     --help  Show a summary of acceptable arguments and options.

     -d

     -o

     -x

     --radix= number
             Using one of these options, you can control whether the size of
             each section is given in decimal ( [-d], or [--radix=10]); octal
             ( [-o], or [--radix=8]); or hexadecimal ( [-x], or [--radix=16]).
             In [--radix= number], only the three values (8, 10, 16) are
             supported. The total size is always given in two radices; decimal
             and hexadecimal for [-d] or [-x] output, or octal and hexadecimal
             if you're using [-o].

     -t

     --totals
             Show totals of all objects listed (Berkeley format listing mode
             only).

     --target= bfdname
             Specify that the object-code format for objfile is bfdname.  This
             option may not be necessary; size can automatically recognize
             many formats.See Section ``Target Selection'', for more
             information.

     -V

     --version
             Display the version number of size.

strings
           strings [-afov] [-min-len]
                   [-n min-len] [--bytes=min-len]
                   [-t radix] [--radix=radix]
                   [-e encoding] [--encoding=encoding]
                   [-] [--all] [--print-file-name]
                   [-T bfdname] [--target=bfdname]
                   [--help] [--version] file...

     For each file given, GNU strings prints the printable character sequences
     that are at least 4 characters long (or the number given with the options
     below) and are followed by an unprintable character. By default, it only
     prints the strings from the initialized and loaded sections of object
     files; for other types of files, it prints the strings from the whole
     file.

     strings is mainly useful for determining the contents of non-text files.

     -a

     --all

     -       Do not scan only the initialized and loaded sections of object
             files; scan the whole files.

     -f

     --print-file-name
             Print the name of the file before each string.

     --help  Print a summary of the program usage on the standard output and
             exit.

     - min-len

     -n min-len

     --bytes= min-len
             Print sequences of characters that are at least min-len
             characters long, instead of the default 4.

     -o      Like -t o.  Some other versions of strings have [-o] act like -t
             d instead. Since we can not be compatible with both ways, we
             simply chose one.

     -t radix

     --radix= radix
             Print the offset within the file before each string. The single
             character argument specifies the radix of the offset--- o for
             octal, x for hexadecimal, or d for decimal.

     -e encoding

     --encoding= encoding
             Select the character encoding of the strings that are to be
             found. Possible values for encoding are: s = single-7-bit-byte
             characters (ASCII, ISO 8859, etc., default), S = single-8-bit-
             byte characters, b = 16-bit bigendian, l = 16-bit littleendian, B
             = 32-bit bigendian, L = 32-bit littleendian. Useful for finding
             wide character strings.

     -T bfdname

     --target= bfdname
             Specify an object code format other than your system's default
             format.See Section ``Target Selection'', for more information.

     -v

     --version
             Print the program version number on the standard output and exit.

strip
           strip [-F bfdname |--target=bfdname]
                 [-I bfdname |--input-target=bfdname]
                 [-O bfdname |--output-target=bfdname]
                 [-s|--strip-all]
                 [-S|-g|-d|--strip-debug]
                 [-K symbolname |--keep-symbol=symbolname]
                 [-N symbolname |--strip-symbol=symbolname]
                 [-w|--wildcard]
                 [-x|--discard-all] [-X |--discard-locals]
                 [-R sectionname |--remove-section=sectionname]
                 [-o file] [-p|--preserve-dates]
                 [--keep-file-symbols]
                 [--only-keep-debug]
                 [-v |--verbose] [-V|--version]
                 [--help] [--info]
                 objfile...

     GNU strip discards all symbols from object files objfile.  The list of
     object files may include archives. At least one object file must be
     given.

     strip modifies the files named in its argument, rather than writing
     modified copies under different names.

     -F bfdname

     --target= bfdname
             Treat the original objfile as a file with the object code format
             bfdname, and rewrite it in the same format.See Section ``Target
             Selection'', for more information.

     --help  Show a summary of the options to strip and exit.

     --info  Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
             available.

     -I bfdname

     --input-target= bfdname
             Treat the original objfile as a file with the object code format
             bfdname.  See Section.Dq Target Selection , for more information.

     -O bfdname

     --output-target= bfdname
             Replace objfile with a file in the output format bfdname.  See
             Section.Dq Target Selection , for more information.

     -R sectionname

     --remove-section= sectionname
             Remove any section named sectionname from the output file. This
             option may be given more than once. Note that using this option
             inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

     -s

     --strip-all
             Remove all symbols.

     -g

     -S

     -d

     --strip-debug
             Remove debugging symbols only.

     --strip-unneeded
             Remove all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

     -K symbolname

     --keep-symbol= symbolname
             When stripping symbols, keep symbol symbolname even if it would
             normally be stripped. This option may be given more than once.

     -N symbolname

     --strip-symbol= symbolname
             Remove symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be
             given more than once, and may be combined with strip options
             other than [-K].

     -o file
             Put the stripped output in file, rather than replacing the
             existing file. When this argument is used, only one objfile
             argument may be specified.

     -p

     --preserve-dates
             Preserve the access and modification dates of the file.

     -w

     --wildcard
             Permit regular expressions in symbolname s used in other command
             line options. The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\)
             and square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the
             symbol name. If the first character of the symbol name is the
             exclamation point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed
             for that symbol. For example:

                     -w -K !foo -K fo*

             would cause strip to only keep symbols that start with the
             letters "fo", but to discard the symbol "foo".

     -x

     --discard-all
             Remove non-global symbols.

     -X

     --discard-locals
             Remove compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually start
             with L or ..)

     --keep-file-symbols
             When stripping a file, perhaps with [--strip-debug] or
             [--strip-unneeded], retain any symbols specifying source file
             names, which would otherwise get stripped.

     --only-keep-debug
             Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
             stripped by [--strip-debug] and leaving the debugging sections
             intact. In ELF files, this preserves all note sections in the
             output.

             The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction
             with [--add-GNU-debuglink] to create a two part executable. One a
             stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
             distribution and the second a debugging information file which is
             only needed if debugging abilities are required. The suggested
             procedure to create these files is as follows:

             1.   Link the executable as normal. Assuming that is is called
                  foo then...

             2.   Run objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg to create a file
                  containing the debugging info.

             3.   Run objcopy --strip-debug foo to create a stripped
                  executable.

             4.   Run objcopy --add-GNU-debuglink=foo.dbg foo to add a link to
                  the debugging info into the stripped executable.

             Note - the choice of .dbg as an extension for the debug info file
             is arbitrary. Also the --only-keep-debug step is optional. You
             could instead do this:

             1.   Link the executable as normal.

             2.   Copy foo to foo.full

             3.   Run strip --strip-debug foo

             4.   Run objcopy --add-GNU-debuglink=foo.full foo

             ie the file pointed to by the [--add-GNU-debuglink] can be the
             full executable. It does not have to be a file created by the
             [--only-keep-debug] switch.

             Note - this switch is only intended for use on fully linked
             files. It does not make sense to use it on object files where the
             debugging information may be incomplete. Besides the
             GNU_debuglink feature currently only supports the presence of one
             filename containing debugging information, not multiple filenames
             on a one-per-object-file basis.

     -V

     --version
             Show the version number for strip.

     -v

     --verbose
             Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of
             archives, strip -v lists all members of the archive.

c++filt
           c++filt [-_|--strip-underscores]
                   [-n|--no-strip-underscores]
                   [-p|--no-params]
                   [-t|--types]
                   [-i|--no-verbose]
                   [-s format|--format=format]
                   [--help]  [--version]  [symbol...]

     The C++ and Java languages provide function overloading, which means that
     you can write many functions with the same name, providing that each
     function takes parameters of different types. In order to be able to
     distinguish these similarly named functions C++ and Java encode them into
     a low-level assembler name which uniquely identifies each different
     version. This process is known as mangling.  The c++filt program does the
     inverse mapping: it decodes ( demangles) low-level names into user-level
     names so that they can be read.

     Every alphanumeric word (consisting of letters, digits, underscores,
     dollars, or periods) seen in the input is a potential mangled name. If
     the name decodes into a C++ name, the C++ name replaces the low-level
     name in the output, otherwise the original word is output. In this way
     you can pass an entire assembler source file, containing mangled names,
     through c++filt and see the same source file containing demangled names.

     You can also use c++filt to decipher individual symbols by passing them
     on the command line:

           c++filt symbol

     If no symbol arguments are given, c++filt reads symbol names from the
     standard input instead. All the results are printed on the standard
     output. The difference between reading names from the command line versus
     reading names from the standard input is that command line arguments are
     expected to be just mangled names and no checking is performed to
     separate them from surrounding text. Thus for example:

           c++filt -n _Z1fv

     will work and demangle the name to "f()" whereas:

           c++filt -n _Z1fv,

     will not work. (Note the extra comma at the end of the mangled name which
     makes it invalid). This command however will work:

           echo _Z1fv, | c++filt -n

     and will display "f()," ie the demangled name followed by a trailing
     comma.  This behaviour is because when the names are read from the
     standard input it is expected that they might be part of an assembler
     source file where there might be extra, extraneous characters trailing
     after a mangled name. eg:

               .type   _Z1fv, @function

     -_

     --strip-underscores
             On some systems, both the C and C++ compilers put an underscore
             in front of every name. For example, the C name foo gets the low-
             level name _foo.  This option removes the initial underscore.
             Whether c++filt removes the underscore by default is target
             dependent.

     -j

     --java  Prints demangled names using Java syntax. The default is to use
             C++ syntax.

     -n

     --no-strip-underscores
             Do not remove the initial underscore.

     -p

     --no-params
             When demangling the name of a function, do not display the types
             of the function's parameters.

     -t

     --types
             Attempt to demangle types as well as function names. This is
             disabled by default since mangled types are normally only used
             internally in the compiler, and they can be confused with non-
             mangled names. eg a function called "a" treated as a mangled type
             name would be demangled to "signed char".

     -i

     --no-verbose
             Do not include implementation details (if any) in the demangled
             output.

     -s format

     --format= format
             c++filt can decode various methods of mangling, used by different
             compilers. The argument to this option selects which method it
             uses:

             auto    Automatic selection based on executable (the default
                     method)

             GNU     the one used by the GNU C++ compiler (g++)

             lucid   the one used by the Lucid compiler (lcc)

             arm     the one specified by the C++ Annotated Reference Manual

             hp      the one used by the HP compiler (aCC)

             edg     the one used by the EDG compiler

             GNU-v3  the one used by the GNU C++ compiler (g++) with the V3
                     ABI.

             java    the one used by the GNU Java compiler (gcj)

             gnat    the one used by the GNU Ada compiler (GNAT).

     --help  Print a summary of the options to c++filt and exit.

     --version
             Print the version number of c++filt and exit.

     "Warning: c++filt is a new utility, and the details of its user interface
     are subject to change in future releases. In particular, a command-line
     option may be required in the future to decode a name passed as an
     argument on the command line; in other words,

           c++filt symbol

     may in a future release become

           c++filt option symbol
     "

addr2line
           addr2line [-b bfdname|--target=bfdname]
                     [-C|--demangle[=style]]
                     [-e filename|--exe=filename]
                     [-f|--functions] [-s|--basename]
                     [-i|--inlines]
                     [-j|--section=name]
                     [-H|--help] [-V|--version]
                     [addr addr ...]

     addr2line translates addresses into file names and line numbers. Given an
     address in an executable or an offset in a section of a relocatable
     object, it uses the debugging information to figure out which file name
     and line number are associated with it.

     The executable or relocatable object to use is specified with the [-e]
     option. The default is the file a.out.  The section in the relocatable
     object to use is specified with the [-j] option.

     addr2line has two modes of operation.

     In the first, hexadecimal addresses are specified on the command line,
     and addr2line displays the file name and line number for each address.

     In the second, addr2line reads hexadecimal addresses from standard input,
     and prints the file name and line number for each address on standard
     output. In this mode, addr2line may be used in a pipe to convert
     dynamically chosen addresses.

     The format of the output is FILENAME:LINENO.  The file name and line
     number for each address is printed on a separate line.  If the -f option
     is used, then each FILENAME:LINENO line is preceded by a FUNCTIONNAME
     line which is the name of the function containing the address.

     If the file name or function name can not be determined, addr2line will
     print two question marks in their place. If the line number can not be
     determined, addr2line will print 0.

     The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
     equivalent.

     -b bfdname

     --target= bfdname
             Specify that the object-code format for the object files is
             bfdname.

     -C

     --demangle[= style]
             Decode ( demangle) low-level symbol names into user-level names.
             Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
             this makes C++ function names readable.  Different compilers have
             different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
             can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
             compiler.See Section ``c++filt'', for more information on
             demangling.

     -e filename

     --exe= filename
             Specify the name of the executable for which addresses should be
             translated.  The default file is a.out.

     -f

     --functions
             Display function names as well as file and line number
             information.

     -s

     --basenames
             Display only the base of each file name.

     -i

     --inlines
             If the address belongs to a function that was inlined, the source
             information for all enclosing scopes back to the first non-
             inlined function will also be printed. For example, if main
             inlines callee1 which inlines callee2, and address is from
             callee2, the source information for callee1 and main will also be
             printed.

     -j

     --section
             Read offsets relative to the specified section instead of
             absolute addresses.

nlmconv
     nlmconv converts a relocatable object file into a NetWare Loadable
     Module.

     "Warning: nlmconv is not always built as part of the binary utilities,
     since it is only useful for NLM targets."

           nlmconv [-I bfdname|--input-target=bfdname]
                   [-O bfdname|--output-target=bfdname]
                   [-T headerfile|--header-file=headerfile]
                   [-d|--debug] [-l linker|--linker=linker]
                   [-h|--help] [-V|--version]
                   infile outfile

     nlmconv converts the relocatable i386 object file infile into the NetWare
     Loadable Module outfile, optionally reading headerfile for NLM header
     information. For instructions on writing the NLM command file language
     used in header files, see the linkers section, NLMLINK in particular, of
     the NLM Development and Tools Overview, which is part of the NLM Software
     Developer's Kit ("NLM SDK"), available from Novell, Inc.  nlmconv uses
     the GNU Binary File Descriptor library to read infile; see
     BFD,,BFD,ld.info,Using LD, for more information.

     nlmconv can perform a link step. In other words, you can list more than
     one object file for input if you list them in the definitions file
     (rather than simply specifying one input file on the command line). In
     this case, nlmconv calls the linker for you.

     -I bfdname

     --input-target= bfdname
             Object format of the input file.  nlmconv can usually determine
             the format of a given file (so no default is necessary).See
             Section ``Target Selection'', for more information.

     -O bfdname

     --output-target= bfdname
             Object format of the output file.  nlmconv infers the output
             format based on the input format, e.g. for a i386 input file the
             output format is nlm32-i386.  See Section.Dq Target Selection ,
             for more information.

     -T headerfile

     --header-file= headerfile
             Reads headerfile for NLM header information. For instructions on
             writing the NLM command file language used in header files, see
             see the linkers section, of the NLM Development and Tools
             Overview, which is part of the NLM Software Developer's Kit,
             available from Novell, Inc.

     -d

     --debug
             Displays (on standard error) the linker command line used by
             nlmconv.

     -l linker

     --linker= linker
             Use linker for any linking.  linker can be an absolute or a
             relative pathname.

     -h

     --help  Prints a usage summary.

     -V

     --version
             Prints the version number for nlmconv.

windmc
     windmc may be used to generator Windows message resources.

     "Warning: windmc is not always built as part of the binary utilities,
     since it is only useful for Windows targets."

           windmc [options] input-file

     windmc reads message definitions from an input file (.mc) and translate
     them into a set of output files. The output files may be of four kinds:

     h       A C header file containing the message definitions.

     rc      A resource file compilable by the windres tool.

     bin     One or more binary files containing the resource data for a
             specific message language.

     dbg     A C include file that maps message id's to their symbolic name.

     The exact description of these different formats is available in
     documentation from Microsoft.

     When windmc converts from the mc format to the bin format, rc, h, and
     optional dbg it is acting like the Windows Message Compiler.

     -a

     --ascii_in
             Specifies that the input file specified is ANSI. This is the
             default behaviour.

     -A

     --ascii_out
             Specifies that messages in the output bin files should be in ANSI
             format.

     -b

     --binprefix
             Specifies that bin filenames should have to be prefixed by the
             basename of the source file.

     -c

     --customflag
             Sets the customer bit in all message id's.

     -C codepage

     --codepage_in codepage
             Sets the default codepage to be used to convert input file to
             UTF16. The default is ocdepage 1252.

     -d

     --decimal_values
             Outputs the constants in the header file in decimal. Default is
             using hexadecimal output.

     -e ext

     --extension ext
             The extension for the header file. The default is .h extension.

     -F target

     --target target
             Specify the BFD format to use for a bin file as output. This is a
             BFD target name; you can use the [--help] option to see a list of
             supported targets. Normally windmc will use the default format,
             which is the first one listed by the [--help] option. Target
             Selection.

     -h path

     --headerdir path
             The target directory of the generated header file. The default is
             the current directory.

     -H

     --help  Displays a list of command line options and then exits.

     -m characters

     --maxlength characters
             Instructs windmc to generate a warning if the length of any
             message exceeds the number specified.

     -n

     --nullterminate
             Terminate message text in bin files by zero. By default they are
             terminated by CR/LF.

     -o

     --hresult_use
             Not yet implemented. Instructs windmc to generate an OLE2 header
             file, using HRESULT definitions. Status codes are used if the
             flag is not specified.

     -O codepage

     --codepage_out codepage
             Sets the default codepage to be used to output text files. The
             default is ocdepage 1252.

     -r path

     --rcdir path
             The target directory for the generated rc script and the
             generated bin files that the resource compiler script includes.
             The default is the current directory.

     -u

     --unicode_in
             Specifies that the input file is UTF16.

     -U

     --unicode_out
             Specifies that messages in the output bin file should be in UTF16
             format. This is the default behaviour.

     -v

     --verbose
             Enable verbose mode. This tells you what the preprocessor is if
             you didn't specify one.

     -V

     --version
             Prints the version number for windres.

     -x path

     --xdgb path
             The path of the dbg C include file that maps message id's to the
             symbolic name. No such file is generated without specifying the
             switch.

windres
     windres may be used to manipulate Windows resources.

     "Warning: windres is not always built as part of the binary utilities,
     since it is only useful for Windows targets."

           windres [options] [input-file] [output-file]

     windres reads resources from an input file and copies them into an output
     file. Either file may be in one of three formats:

     rc      A text format read by the Resource Compiler.

     res     A binary format generated by the Resource Compiler.

     coff    A COFF object or executable.

     The exact description of these different formats is available in
     documentation from Microsoft.

     When windres converts from the rc format to the res format, it is acting
     like the Windows Resource Compiler. When windres converts from the res
     format to the coff format, it is acting like the Windows CVTRES program.

     When windres generates an rc file, the output is similar but not
     identical to the format expected for the input. When an input rc file
     refers to an external filename, an output rc file will instead include
     the file contents.

     If the input or output format is not specified, windres will guess based
     on the file name, or, for the input file, the file contents.  A file with
     an extension of .rc will be treated as an rc file, a file with an
     extension of .res will be treated as a res file, and a file with an
     extension of .o or .exe will be treated as a coff file.

     If no output file is specified, windres will print the resources in rc
     format to standard output.

     The normal use is for you to write an rc file, use windres to convert it
     to a COFF object file, and then link the COFF file into your application.
     This will make the resources described in the rc file available to
     Windows.

     -i filename

     --input filename
             The name of the input file. If this option is not used, then
             windres will use the first non-option argument as the input file
             name. If there are no non-option arguments, then windres will
             read from standard input.  windres can not read a COFF file from
             standard input.

     -o filename

     --output filename
             The name of the output file. If this option is not used, then
             windres will use the first non-option argument, after any used
             for the input file name, as the output file name. If there is no
             non-option argument, then windres will write to standard output.
             windres can not write a COFF file to standard output. Note, for
             compatibility with rc the option [-fo] is also accepted, but its
             use is not recommended.

     -J format

     --input-format format
             The input format to read.  format may be res, rc, or coff.  If no
             input format is specified, windres will guess, as described
             above.

     -O format

     --output-format format
             The output format to generate.  format may be res, rc, or coff.
             If no output format is specified, windres will guess, as
             described above.

     -F target

     --target target
             Specify the BFD format to use for a COFF file as input or output.
             This is a BFD target name; you can use the [--help] option to see
             a list of supported targets. Normally windres will use the
             default format, which is the first one listed by the [--help]
             option. Target Selection.

     --preprocessor program
             When windres reads an rc file, it runs it through the C
             preprocessor first. This option may be used to specify the
             preprocessor to use, including any leading arguments. The default
             preprocessor argument is gcc -E -xc-header -DRC_INVOKED.

     -I directory

     --include-dir directory
             Specify an include directory to use when reading an rc file.
             windres will pass this to the preprocessor as an [-I] option.
             windres will also search this directory when looking for files
             named in the rc file. If the argument passed to this command
             matches any of the supported formats (as described in the [-J]
             option), it will issue a deprecation warning, and behave just
             like the [-J] option. New programs should not use this behaviour.
             If a directory happens to match a format, simple prefix it with
             ./ to disable the backward compatibility.

     -D target

     --define sym[= val]
             Specify a [-D] option to pass to the preprocessor when reading an
             rc file.

     -U target

     --undefine sym
             Specify a [-U] option to pass to the preprocessor when reading an
             rc file.

     -r      Ignored for compatibility with rc.

     -v      Enable verbose mode. This tells you what the preprocessor is if
             you didn't specify one.

     -c val

     --codepage val
             Specify the default codepage to use when reading an rc file.  val
             should be a hexadecimal prefixed by 0x or decimal codepage code.
             The valid range is from zero up to 0xffff, but the validity of
             the codepage is host and configuration dependent.

     -l val

     --language val
             Specify the default language to use when reading an rc file.  val
             should be a hexadecimal language code. The low eight bits are the
             language, and the high eight bits are the sublanguage.

     --use-temp-file
             Use a temporary file to instead of using popen to read the output
             of the preprocessor.  Use this option if the popen implementation
             is buggy on the host (eg., certain non-English language versions
             of Windows 95 and Windows 98 are known to have buggy popen where
             the output will instead go the console).

     --no-use-temp-file
             Use popen, not a temporary file, to read the output of the
             preprocessor. This is the default behaviour.

     -h

     --help  Prints a usage summary.

     -V

     --version
             Prints the version number for windres.

     --yydebug
             If windres is compiled with YYDEBUG defined as 1, this will turn
             on parser debugging.

dlltool
     dlltool is used to create the files needed to create dynamic link
     libraries (DLLs) on systems which understand PE format image files such
     as Windows. A DLL contains an export table which contains information
     that the runtime loader needs to resolve references from a referencing
     program.

     The export table is generated by this program by reading in a .def file
     or scanning the .a and .o files which will be in the DLL. A .o file can
     contain information in special .drectve sections with export information.

     "Note: dlltool is not always built as part of the binary utilities, since
     it is only useful for those targets which support DLLs."

           dlltool [-d|--input-def def-file-name]
                   [-b|--base-file base-file-name]
                   [-e|--output-exp exports-file-name]
                   [-z|--output-def def-file-name]
                   [-l|--output-lib library-file-name]
                   [--export-all-symbols] [--no-export-all-symbols]
                   [--exclude-symbols list]
                   [--no-default-excludes]
                   [-S|--as path-to-assembler] [-f|--as-flags options]
                   [-D|--dllname name] [-m|--machine machine]
                   [-a|--add-indirect]
                   [-U|--add-underscore] [--add-stdcall-underscore]
                   [-k|--kill-at] [-A|--add-stdcall-alias]
                   [-p|--ext-prefix-alias prefix]
                   [-x|--no-idata4] [-c|--no-idata5] [-i|--interwork]
                   [-n|--nodelete] [-t|--temp-prefix prefix]
                   [-v|--verbose]
                   [-h|--help] [-V|--version]
                   [object-file ...]

     dlltool reads its inputs, which can come from the [-d] and [-b] options
     as well as object files specified on the command line. It then processes
     these inputs and if the [-e] option has been specified it creates a
     exports file. If the [-l] option has been specified it creates a library
     file and if the [-z] option has been specified it creates a def file. Any
     or all of the [-e], [-l] and [-z] options can be present in one
     invocation of dlltool.

     When creating a DLL, along with the source for the DLL, it is necessary
     to have three other files.  dlltool can help with the creation of these
     files.

     The first file is a .def file which specifies which functions are
     exported from the DLL, which functions the DLL imports, and so on. This
     is a text file and can be created by hand, or dlltool can be used to
     create it using the [-z] option. In this case dlltool will scan the
     object files specified on its command line looking for those functions
     which have been specially marked as being exported and put entries for
     them in the .def file it creates.

     In order to mark a function as being exported from a DLL, it needs to
     have an [-export:<name_of_function>] entry in the .drectve section of the
     object file. This can be done in C by using the asm() operator:

             asm (".section .drectve");
             asm (".ascii \"-export:my_func\"");

             int my_func (void) { ... }

     The second file needed for DLL creation is an exports file. This file is
     linked with the object files that make up the body of the DLL and it
     handles the interface between the DLL and the outside world. This is a
     binary file and it can be created by giving the [-e] option to dlltool
     when it is creating or reading in a .def file.

     The third file needed for DLL creation is the library file that programs
     will link with in order to access the functions in the DLL. This file can
     be created by giving the [-l] option to dlltool when it is creating or
     reading in a .def file.

     dlltool builds the library file by hand, but it builds the exports file
     by creating temporary files containing assembler statements and then
     assembling these.  The [-S] command line option can be used to specify
     the path to the assembler that dlltool will use, and the [-f] option can
     be used to pass specific flags to that assembler. The [-n] can be used to
     prevent dlltool from deleting these temporary assembler files when it is
     done, and if [-n] is specified twice then this will prevent dlltool from
     deleting the temporary object files it used to build the library.

     Here is an example of creating a DLL from a source file dll.c and also
     creating a program (from an object file called program.o) that uses that
     DLL:

             gcc -c dll.c
             dlltool -e exports.o -l dll.lib dll.o
             gcc dll.o exports.o -o dll.dll
             gcc program.o dll.lib -o program

     The command line options have the following meanings:

     -d filename

     --input-def filename
             Specifies the name of a .def file to be read in and processed.

     -b filename

     --base-file filename
             Specifies the name of a base file to be read in and processed.
             The contents of this file will be added to the relocation section
             in the exports file generated by dlltool.

     -e filename

     --output-exp filename
             Specifies the name of the export file to be created by dlltool.

     -z filename

     --output-def filename
             Specifies the name of the .def file to be created by dlltool.

     -l filename

     --output-lib filename
             Specifies the name of the library file to be created by dlltool.

     --export-all-symbols
             Treat all global and weak defined symbols found in the input
             object files as symbols to be exported. There is a small list of
             symbols which are not exported by default; see the
             [--no-default-excludes] option. You may add to the list of
             symbols to not export by using the [--exclude-symbols] option.

     --no-export-all-symbols
             Only export symbols explicitly listed in an input .def file or in
             .drectve sections in the input object files. This is the default
             behaviour. The .drectve sections are created by dllexport
             attributes in the source code.

     --exclude-symbols list
             Do not export the symbols in list.  This is a list of symbol
             names separated by comma or colon characters. The symbol names
             should not contain a leading underscore. This is only meaningful
             when [--export-all-symbols] is used.

     --no-default-excludes
             When [--export-all-symbols] is used, it will by default avoid
             exporting certain special symbols. The current list of symbols to
             avoid exporting is [email protected], [email protected], impure_ptr.  You
             may use the [--no-default-excludes] option to go ahead and export
             these special symbols. This is only meaningful when
             [--export-all-symbols] is used.

     -S path

     --as path
             Specifies the path, including the filename, of the assembler to
             be used to create the exports file.

     -f options

     --as-flags options
             Specifies any specific command line options to be passed to the
             assembler when building the exports file. This option will work
             even if the [-S] option is not used. This option only takes one
             argument, and if it occurs more than once on the command line,
             then later occurrences will override earlier occurrences. So if
             it is necessary to pass multiple options to the assembler they
             should be enclosed in double quotes.

     -D name

     --dll-name name
             Specifies the name to be stored in the .def file as the name of
             the DLL when the [-e] option is used. If this option is not
             present, then the filename given to the [-e] option will be used
             as the name of the DLL.

     -m machine

     -machine machine
             Specifies the type of machine for which the library file should
             be built.  dlltool has a built in default type, depending upon
             how it was created, but this option can be used to override that.
             This is normally only useful when creating DLLs for an ARM
             processor, when the contents of the DLL are actually encode using
             Thumb instructions.

     -a

     --add-indirect
             Specifies that when dlltool is creating the exports file it
             should add a section which allows the exported functions to be
             referenced without using the import library. Whatever the hell
             that means!

     -U

     --add-underscore
             Specifies that when dlltool is creating the exports file it
             should prepend an underscore to the names of all exported
             symbols.

     --add-stdcall-underscore
             Specifies that when dlltool is creating the exports file it
             should prepend an underscore to the names of exported stdcall
             functions. Variable names and non-stdcall function names are not
             modified.  This option is useful when creating GNU-compatible
             import libs for third party DLLs that were built with MS-Windows
             tools.

     -k

     --kill-at
             Specifies that when dlltool is creating the exports file it
             should not append the string @ <number>.  These numbers are
             called ordinal numbers and they represent another way of
             accessing the function in a DLL, other than by name.

     -A

     --add-stdcall-alias
             Specifies that when dlltool is creating the exports file it
             should add aliases for stdcall symbols without @ <number> in
             addition to the symbols with @ <number>.

     -p

     --ext-prefix-alias prefix
             Causes dlltool to create external aliases for all DLL imports
             with the specified prefix.  The aliases are created for both
             external and import symbols with no leading underscore.

     -x

     --no-idata4
             Specifies that when dlltool is creating the exports and library
             files it should omit the .idata4 section. This is for
             compatibility with certain operating systems.

     -c

     --no-idata5
             Specifies that when dlltool is creating the exports and library
             files it should omit the .idata5 section. This is for
             compatibility with certain operating systems.

     -i

     --interwork
             Specifies that dlltool should mark the objects in the library
             file and exports file that it produces as supporting interworking
             between ARM and Thumb code.

     -n

     --nodelete
             Makes dlltool preserve the temporary assembler files it used to
             create the exports file.  If this option is repeated then dlltool
             will also preserve the temporary object files it uses to create
             the library file.

     -t prefix

     --temp-prefix prefix
             Makes dlltool use prefix when constructing the names of temporary
             assembler and object files. By default, the temp file prefix is
             generated from the pid.

     -v

     --verbose
             Make dlltool describe what it is doing.

     -h

     --help  Displays a list of command line options and then exits.

     -V

     --version
             Displays dlltool's version number and then exits.

   The format of the dlltool .def file
     A .def file contains any number of the following commands:

     NAME name [, base ]
             The result is going to be named name .exe.

     LIBRARY name [, base ]
             The result is going to be named name .dll.

     EXPORTS (((name1 [= name2 ]) | (name1 = module-name . external-name ))

     [integer ] [NONAME] [CONSTANT] [DATA] [PRIVATE]) *
             Declares name1 as an exported symbol from the DLL, with optional
             ordinal number integer, or declares name1 as an alias (forward)
             of the function external-name in the DLL module-name.

     IMPORTS ((internal-name = module-name . integer ) | [internal-name =]
             module-name . external-name )) *
             Declares that external-name or the exported function whose
             ordinal number is integer is to be imported from the file
             module-name.  If internal-name is specified then this is the name
             that the imported function will be referred to in the body of the
             DLL.

     DESCRIPTION string
             Puts string into the output .exp file in the .rdata section.

     STACKSIZE number-reserve [, number-commit ]

     HEAPSIZE number-reserve [, number-commit ]
             Generates --stack or --heap number-reserve , number-commit in the
             output .drectve section. The linker will see this and act upon
             it.

     CODE attr +

     DATA attr +

     SECTIONS (section-name attr +) *
             Generates --attr section-name attr in the output .drectve
             section, where attr is one of READ, WRITE, EXECUTE or SHARED.
             The linker will see this and act upon it.

readelf
           readelf [-a|--all]
                   [-h|--file-header]
                   [-l|--program-headers|--segments]
                   [-S|--section-headers|--sections]
                   [-g|--section-groups]
                   [-t|--section-details]
                   [-e|--headers]
                   [-s|--syms|--symbols]
                   [-n|--notes]
                   [-r|--relocs]
                   [-u|--unwind]
                   [-d|--dynamic]
                   [-V|--version-info]
                   [-A|--arch-specific]
                   [-D|--use-dynamic]
                   [-x <number or name>|--hex-dump=<number or name>]
                   [-w[liaprmfFsoR]|
                    --debug-dump[=line,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges]]
                   [-I|-histogram]
                   [-v|--version]
                   [-W|--wide]
                   [-H|--help]
                   elffile...

     readelf displays information about one or more ELF format object files.
     The options control what particular information to display.

     elffile ...are the object files to be examined. 32-bit and 64-bit ELF
     files are supported, as are archives containing ELF files.

     This program performs a similar function to objdump but it goes into more
     detail and it exists independently of the bfd library, so if there is a
     bug in bfd then readelf will not be affected.

     The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
     equivalent.  At least one option besides -v or -H must be given.

     -a

     --all   Equivalent to specifying [--file-header], [--program-headers],
             [--sections], [--symbols], [--relocs], [--dynamic], [--notes] and
             [--version-info].

     -h

     --file-header
             Displays the information contained in the ELF header at the start
             of the file.

     -l

     --program-headers

     --segments
             Displays the information contained in the file's segment headers,
             if it has any.

     -S

     --sections

     --section-headers
             Displays the information contained in the file's section headers,
             if it has any.

     -g

     --section-groups
             Displays the information contained in the file's section groups,
             if it has any.

     -t

     --section-details
             Displays the detailed section information. Implies [-S].

     -s

     --symbols

     --syms  Displays the entries in symbol table section of the file, if it
             has one.

     -e

     --headers
             Display all the headers in the file. Equivalent to [-h -l -S].

     -n

     --notes
             Displays the contents of the NOTE segments and/or sections, if
             any.

     -r

     --relocs
             Displays the contents of the file's relocation section, if it has
             one.

     -u

     --unwind
             Displays the contents of the file's unwind section, if it has
             one. Only the unwind sections for IA64 ELF files are currently
             supported.

     -d

     --dynamic
             Displays the contents of the file's dynamic section, if it has
             one.

     -V

     --version-info
             Displays the contents of the version sections in the file, it
             they exist.

     -A

     --arch-specific
             Displays architecture-specific information in the file, if there
             is any.

     -D

     --use-dynamic
             When displaying symbols, this option makes readelf use the symbol
             table in the file's dynamic section, rather than the one in the
             symbols section.

     -x <number or name>

     --hex-dump=<number or name>
             Displays the contents of the indicated section as a hexadecimal
             dump. A number identifies a particular section by index in the
             section table; any other string identifies all sections with that
             name in the object file.

     -w[liaprmfFsoR]

     --debug-dump[=line,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges]
             Displays the contents of the debug sections in the file, if any
             are present.  If one of the optional letters or words follows the
             switch then only data found in those specific sections will be
             dumped.

     -I

     --histogram
             Display a histogram of bucket list lengths when displaying the
             contents of the symbol tables.

     -v

     --version
             Display the version number of readelf.

     -W

     --wide  Don't break output lines to fit into 80 columns. By default
             readelf breaks section header and segment listing lines for
             64-bit ELF files, so that they fit into 80 columns. This option
             causes readelf to print each section header resp. each segment
             one a single line, which is far more readable on terminals wider
             than 80 columns.

     -H

     --help  Display the command line options understood by readelf.

Common Options
     The following command-line options are supported by all of the programs
     described in this manual.

     @ file  Read command-line options from file.  The options read are
             inserted in place of the original @ file option. If file does not
             exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated
             literally, and not removed.

             Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace
             character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire
             option in either single or double quotes.  Any character
             (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the
             character to be included with a backslash. The file may itself
             contain additional @ file options; any such options will be
             processed recursively.

     --help  Display the command-line options supported by the program.

     --version
             Display the version number of the program.

Selecting the Target System
     You can specify two aspects of the target system to the GNU binary file
     utilities, each in several ways:

        the target

        the architecture

     In the following summaries, the lists of ways to specify values are in
     order of decreasing precedence. The ways listed first override those
     listed later.

     The commands to list valid values only list the values for which the
     programs you are running were configured. If they were configured with
     [--enable-targets=all], the commands list most of the available values,
     but a few are left out; not all targets can be configured in at once
     because some of them can only be configured native (on hosts with the
     same type as the target system).

   Target Selection
     A target is an object file format. A given target may be supported for
     multiple architectures (see Section ``Architecture Selection'').  A
     target selection may also have variations for different operating systems
     or architectures.

     The command to list valid target values is objdump -i (the first column
     of output contains the relevant information).

     Some sample values are: a.out-hp300bsd, ecoff-littlemips,
     a.out-sunos-big.

     You can also specify a target using a configuration triplet. This is the
     same sort of name that is passed to configure to specify a target. When
     you use a configuration triplet as an argument, it must be fully
     canonicalized. You can see the canonical version of a triplet by running
     the shell script config.sub which is included with the sources.

     Some sample configuration triplets are: m68k-hp-bsd, mips-dec-ultrix,
     sparc-sun-sunos.

     objdump(Target)

     Ways to specify:

     1.   command line option: [-b] or [--target]

     2.   environment variable GNUTARGET

     3.   deduced from the input file

     objcopy(and) strip(Input) Target

     Ways to specify:

     1.   command line options: [-I] or [--input-target], or [-F] or
          [--target]

     2.   environment variable GNUTARGET

     3.   deduced from the input file

     objcopy(and) strip(Output) Target

     Ways to specify:

     1.   command line options: [-O] or [--output-target], or [-F] or
          [--target]

     2.   the input target (see " objcopy and strip Input Target" above)

     3.   environment variable GNUTARGET

     4.   deduced from the input file

     nm, size,(and) strings(Target)

     Ways to specify:

     1.   command line option: [--target]

     2.   environment variable GNUTARGET

     3.   deduced from the input file

   Architecture Selection
     An architecture is a type of cpu on which an object file is to run. Its
     name may contain a colon, separating the name of the processor family
     from the name of the particular cpu.

     The command to list valid architecture values is objdump -i (the second
     column contains the relevant information).

     Sample values: m68k:68020, mips:3000, sparc.

     objdump(Architecture)

     Ways to specify:

     1.   command line option: [-m] or [--architecture]

     2.   deduced from the input file

     objcopy, nm, size, strings(Architecture)

     Ways to specify:

     1.   deduced from the input file

Reporting Bugs
     Your bug reports play an essential role in making the binary utilities
     reliable.

     Reporting a bug may help you by bringing a solution to your problem, or
     it may not. But in any case the principal function of a bug report is to
     help the entire community by making the next version of the binary
     utilities work better. Bug reports are your contribution to their
     maintenance.

     In order for a bug report to serve its purpose, you must include the
     information that enables us to fix the bug.

   Have You Found a Bug?
     If you are not sure whether you have found a bug, here are some
     guidelines:

        If a binary utility gets a fatal signal, for any input whatever, that
         is a bug. Reliable utilities never crash.

        If a binary utility produces an error message for valid input, that
         is a bug.

        If you are an experienced user of binary utilities, your suggestions
         for improvement are welcome in any case.

   How to Report Bugs
     A number of companies and individuals offer support for GNU products. If
     you obtained the binary utilities from a support organization, we
     recommend you contact that organization first.

     You can find contact information for many support companies and
     individuals in the file etc/SERVICE in the GNU Emacs distribution.

     The fundamental principle of reporting bugs usefully is this: report all
     the facts.  If you are not sure whether to state a fact or leave it out,
     state it!

     Often people omit facts because they think they know what causes the
     problem and assume that some details do not matter. Thus, you might
     assume that the name of a file you use in an example does not matter.
     Well, probably it does not, but one cannot be sure. Perhaps the bug is a
     stray memory reference which happens to fetch from the location where
     that pathname is stored in memory; perhaps, if the pathname were
     different, the contents of that location would fool the utility into
     doing the right thing despite the bug. Play it safe and give a specific,
     complete example. That is the easiest thing for you to do, and the most
     helpful.

     Keep in mind that the purpose of a bug report is to enable us to fix the
     bug if it is new to us. Therefore, always write your bug reports on the
     assumption that the bug has not been reported previously.

     Sometimes people give a few sketchy facts and ask, "Does this ring a
     bell?" This cannot help us fix a bug, so it is basically useless. We
     respond by asking for enough details to enable us to investigate. You
     might as well expedite matters by sending them to begin with.

     To enable us to fix the bug, you should include all these things:

        The version of the utility. Each utility announces it if you start it
         with the [--version] argument.

         Without this, we will not know whether there is any point in looking
         for the bug in the current version of the binary utilities.

        Any patches you may have applied to the source, including any patches
         made to the BFD library.

        The type of machine you are using, and the operating system name and
         version number.

        What compiler (and its version) was used to compile the
         utilities---e.g. " gcc-2.7 ".

        The command arguments you gave the utility to observe the bug. To
         guarantee you will not omit something important, list them all. A
         copy of the Makefile (or the output from make) is sufficient.

         If we were to try to guess the arguments, we would probably guess
         wrong and then we might not encounter the bug.

        A complete input file, or set of input files, that will reproduce the
         bug.  If the utility is reading an object file or files, then it is
         generally most helpful to send the actual object files.

         If the source files were produced exclusively using GNU programs
         (e.g., gcc, gas, and/or the GNU ld), then it may be OK to send the
         source files rather than the object files. In this case, be sure to
         say exactly what version of gcc, or whatever, was used to produce the
         object files. Also say how gcc, or whatever, was configured.

        A description of what behavior you observe that you believe is
         incorrect.  For example, "It gets a fatal signal."

         Of course, if the bug is that the utility gets a fatal signal, then
         we will certainly notice it. But if the bug is incorrect output, we
         might not notice unless it is glaringly wrong. You might as well not
         give us a chance to make a mistake.

         Even if the problem you experience is a fatal signal, you should
         still say so explicitly. Suppose something strange is going on, such
         as your copy of the utility is out of sync, or you have encountered a
         bug in the C library on your system. (This has happened!) Your copy
         might crash and ours would not. If you told us to expect a crash,
         then when ours fails to crash, we would know that the bug was not
         happening for us. If you had not told us to expect a crash, then we
         would not be able to draw any conclusion from our observations.

        If you wish to suggest changes to the source, send us context diffs,
         as generated by diff with the [-u], [-c], or [-p] option. Always send
         diffs from the old file to the new file. If you wish to discuss
         something in the ld source, refer to it by context, not by line
         number.

         The line numbers in our development sources will not match those in
         your sources.  Your line numbers would convey no useful information
         to us.

     Here are some things that are not necessary:

        A description of the envelope of the bug.

         Often people who encounter a bug spend a lot of time investigating
         which changes to the input file will make the bug go away and which
         changes will not affect it.

         This is often time consuming and not very useful, because the way we
         will find the bug is by running a single example under the debugger
         with breakpoints, not by pure deduction from a series of examples. We
         recommend that you save your time for something else.

         Of course, if you can find a simpler example to report instead of the
         original one, that is a convenience for us. Errors in the output will
         be easier to spot, running under the debugger will take less time,
         and so on.

         However, simplification is not vital; if you do not want to do this,
         report the bug anyway and send us the entire test case you used.

        A patch for the bug.

         A patch for the bug does help us if it is a good one. But do not omit
         the necessary information, such as the test case, on the assumption
         that a patch is all we need. We might see problems with your patch
         and decide to fix the problem another way, or we might not understand
         it at all.

         Sometimes with programs as complicated as the binary utilities it is
         very hard to construct an example that will make the program follow a
         certain path through the code. If you do not send us the example, we
         will not be able to construct one, so we will not be able to verify
         that the bug is fixed.

         And if we cannot understand what bug you are trying to fix, or why
         your patch should be an improvement, we will not install it. A test
         case will help us to understand.

        A guess about what the bug is or what it depends on.

         Such guesses are usually wrong. Even we cannot guess right about such
         things without first using the debugger to find the facts.

GNU Free Documentation License
           Copyright (C) 2000, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin
           Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA

           Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of
           this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

     1.   PREAMBLE

          The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
          written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
          the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
          modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily,
          this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
          credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
          modifications made by others.

          This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
          works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
          complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
          license designed for free software.

          We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
          free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
          free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
          that the software does. But this License is not limited to software
          manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject
          matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend
          this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or
          reference.

     2.   APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

          This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
          notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
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          A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
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          The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
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          The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
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          The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
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          works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
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     3.   VERBATIM COPYING

          You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
          commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
          copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
          applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
          add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may
          not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or
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          may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a
          large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in
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          You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
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     4.   COPYING IN QUANTITY

          If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than
          100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you
          must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly,
          all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
          Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly
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          conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

          If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
          legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
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          pages.

          If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
          more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
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          accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the
          last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your
          agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

          It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
          the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies,
          to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
          Document.

     5.   MODIFICATIONS

          You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
          the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
          the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
          Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
          distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
          possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the
          Modified Version:

          A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
          versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History
          section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous
          version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
          B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
          Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
          authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has
          less than five).  C.  State on the Title page the name of the
          publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.  D. Preserve
          all the copyright notices of the Document.  E. Add an appropriate
          copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other
          copyright notices.  F. Include, immediately after the copyright
          notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the
          Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown
          in the Addendum below.  G. Preserve in that license notice the full
          lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the
          Document's license notice.  H. Include an unaltered copy of this
          License.  I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors,
          and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.
          If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create
          one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document
          as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
          Version as stated in the previous sentence.  J. Preserve the network
          location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a
          Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations
          given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These
          may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
          location for a work that was published at least four years before
          the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it
          refers to gives permission.  K. In any section entitled
          "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section's title,
          and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of
          the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
          L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in
          their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent
          are not considered part of the section titles.  M. Delete any
          section entitled "Endorsements." Such a section may not be included
          in the Modified Version.  N. Do not retitle any existing section as
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

          If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
          appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
          material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
          some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their
          titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's
          license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section
          titles.

          You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
          nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
          parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
          been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of
          a standard.

          You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and
          a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the
          list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
          Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
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          already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added
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          on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the
          old one.

          The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
          License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
          assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

     6.   COMBINING DOCUMENTS

          You may combine the Document with other documents released under
          this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
          modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all
          of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
          unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined
          work in its license notice.

          The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
          multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
          copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
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          by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
          author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique
          number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list
          of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

          In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History"
          in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
          "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled
          "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications." You
          must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."

     7.   COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

          You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
          documents released under this License, and replace the individual
          copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
          that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
          rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents
          in all other respects.

          You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
          distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
          copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
          License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
          document.

     8.   AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

          A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
          and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage
          or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified
          Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is
          claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an
          "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the other self-
          contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their
          being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
          the Document.

          If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
          copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one
          quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be
          placed on covers that surround only the Document within the
          aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole
          aggregate.

     9.   TRANSLATION

          Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
          distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
          4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
          permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
          translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
          original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
          translation of this License provided that you also include the
          original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
          between the translation and the original English version of this
          License, the original English version will prevail.

     10.  TERMINATION

          You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
          except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other
          attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
          void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
          License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from
          you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so
          long as such parties remain in full compliance.

     11.  FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

          The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
          the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
          versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
          differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
          http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

          Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
          number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version
          of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
          option of following the terms and conditions either of that
          specified version or of any later version that has been published
          (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document
          does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
          any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
          Foundation.

   ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
     To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
     License in the document and put the following copyright and license
     notices just after the title page:

           Copyright (C)  year  your name.
           Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
           under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
           or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
           with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the
           Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.
           A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
           Free Documentation License."

     If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
     instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover
     Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being
     list "; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

     If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
     recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
     software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their
     use in free software.

Binutils Index

FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4           2015-03-02           FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p4
Command Section