Command Section
GROFF_MS(7)							   GROFF_MS(7)

       groff_ms	- groff	ms macros

       groff -ms [ options... ]	[ files... ]
       groff -m	ms [ options...	] [ files... ]

       This  manual  page  describes the GNU version of	the ms macros, part of
       the groff typesetting system.  The ms macros are	mostly compatible with
       the  documented behavior	of the 4.3 BSD Unix ms macros (see Differences
       from troff ms below for details).   The	ms  macros  are	 suitable  for
       reports,	letters, books,	and technical documentation.

       The  ms	macro package expects files to have a certain amount of	struc-
       ture.  The simplest documents can begin with a paragraph	macro and con-
       sist of text separated by paragraph macros or even blank	lines.	Longer
       documents have a	structure as follows:

       Document	type
	      If you use the RP	(report) macro at the beginning	of  the	 docu-
	      ment,  groff  prints the cover page information on its own page;
	      otherwise	it prints the information on the first page with  your
	      document	text  immediately  following.	Other document formats
	      found in AT&T troff are specific to AT&T or  Berkeley,  and  are
	      not supported in groff ms.

       Format and layout
	      By setting number	registers, you can change your document's type
	      (font and	size), margins,	 spacing,  headers  and	 footers,  and
	      footnotes.   See	Document  control  registers  below  for  more

       Cover page
	      A	cover page consists of a title,	and  optionally	 the  author's
	      name and institution, an abstract, and the date.	See Cover page
	      macros below for more details.

       Body   Following	the cover page is your document.  It consists of para-
	      graphs, headings,	and lists.

       Table of	contents
	      Longer  documents	usually	include	a table	of contents, which you
	      can add by placing the TC	macro at the end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The following table lists the document control number  registers.   For
       the sake	of consistency,	set registers related to margins at the	begin-
       ning of your document, or just after the	RP macro.

       Margin settings

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left	mar-   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length	       next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length     next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin      next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin   next page    1i

       Text settings

		Reg.	       Definition	    Effective	  Default
	       PS	 Point size		   next	para.	  10p
	       VS	 Line spacing (leading)	   next	para.	  12p
	       PSINCR	 Point size increment	   next	heading	  1p
			 for section headings of
			 increasing importance
	       GROWPS	 Heading level beyond	   next	heading	  0
			 which PSINCR is ignored

       Paragraph settings

		 Reg.		   Definition		 Effective     Default
	       PI	   Initial indent		next para.     5n
	       PD	   Space between paragraphs	next para.     0.3v
	       QI	   Quoted paragraph indent	next para.     5n
	       PORPHANS	   Number of initial lines to	next para.     1
			   be kept together
	       HORPHANS	   Number of initial lines to	next heading   1
			   be kept with	heading

       Footnote	settings

	      Reg.	Definition	  Effective	 Default
	       FL     Footnote length	next footnote	\n[LL]*5/6
	       FI     Footnote indent	next footnote	2n
	       FF     Footnote format	next footnote	0
	       FPS    Point size	next footnote	\n[PS]-2
	       FVS    Vert. spacing	next footnote	\n[FPS]+2
	       FPD    Para. spacing	next footnote	\n[PD]/2

       Other settings

	       Reg.	     Definition		Effective   Default
	       MINGW	Minimum	width between	next page   2n

   Cover page macros
       Use the following macros	to create a cover page for  your  document  in
       the order shown.

       .RP [no]
	      Specifies	 the report format for your document.  The report for-
	      mat creates a separate cover page.   With	 no  RP	 macro,	 groff
	      prints a subset of the cover page	on page	1 of your document.

	      If  you  use the optional	no argument, groff prints a title page
	      but does not repeat any of the title  page  information  (title,
	      author, abstract,	etc.) on page 1	of the document.

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header	on page	1.  The	default	is to suppress
	      the header.

       .DA [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the	arguments to the macro
	      if  any,	on  the	 title page (if	specified) and in the footers.
	      This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the	arguments to the macro
	      if any, on the title page	(if specified) but not in the footers.
	      This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies	the document title.  Groff collects text following the
	      TL  macro	 into  the  title,  until  reaching the	author name or

       .AU    Specifies	the author's name.  You	can specify  multiple  authors
	      by using an AU macro for each author.

       .AI    Specifies	 the  author's	institution.  You can specify multiple

       .AB [no]
	      Begins the abstract.  The	default	is to print the	word ABSTRACT,
	      centered	and  in	 italics, above	the text of the	abstract.  The
	      option no	suppresses this	heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

       Use the PP macro	to create indented paragraphs, and  the	 LP  macro  to
       create paragraphs with no initial indent.

       The  QP	macro  indents	all  text at both left and right margins.  The
       effect is identical to the HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> element.  The  next	 para-
       graph or	heading	returns	margins	to normal.

       The  XP	macro  produces	 an exdented paragraph.	 The first line	of the
       paragraph begins	at the left margin, and	subsequent lines are  indented
       (the opposite of	PP).

       For  each  of  the  above  paragraph types, and also for	any list entry
       introduced by the IP macro (described later), the document control reg-
       ister PORPHANS, sets the	minimum	number of lines	which must be printed,
       after the start of the paragraph, and before any	page break occurs.  If
       there  is  insufficient space remaining on the current page to accommo-
       date this number	of lines, then a page break is forced before the first
       line of the paragraph is	printed.

       Similarly,  when	a section heading (see subsection Headings below) pre-
       ceeds any of these paragraph types, the HORPHANS	document control  reg-
       ister specifies the minimum number of lines of the paragraph which must
       be kept on the same page	as the heading.	 If insufficient space remains
       on the current page to accommodate the heading and this number of lines
       of paragraph text, then a page break is forced before  the  heading  is

       Use  headings to	create a hierarchical structure	for your document.  By
       default,	the ms macros print headings in	bold using the same font  fam-
       ily  and	point size as the body text.  For output devices which support
       scalable	fonts, this behaviour may be modified, by defining  the	 docu-
       ment control registers, GROWPS and PSINCR.

       The following heading macros are	available:

       .NH xx Numbered	heading.  The argument xx is either a numeric argument
	      to indicate the level of the heading, or S xx xx "..."   to  set
	      the  section  number  explicitly.	 If you	specify	heading	levels
	      out of sequence, such  as	 invoking  .NH 3  after	 .NH 1,	 groff
	      prints a warning on standard error.

	      If  the GROWPS register is set to	a value	greater	than the level
	      of the heading, then the point  size  of	the  heading  will  be
	      increased	by PSINCR units	over the text size specified by	the PS
	      register,	for each level by which	the heading level is less than
	      the value	of GROWPS.  For	example, the sequence:

		     .nr PS 10
		     .nr GROWPS	3
		     .nr PSINCR	1.5p
		     .NH 1
		     Top Level Heading
		     .NH 2
		     Second Level Heading
		     .NH 3
		     Third Level Heading

	      will  cause  "1. Top Level Heading"  to  be printed in 13pt bold
	      text, followed by	 "1.1. Second Level Heading"  in  11.5pt  bold
	      text,  while  "1.1.1. Third Level	Heading",  and all more	deeply
	      nested heading levels, will remain in the	10pt bold  text	 which
	      is specified by the PS register.

	      Note  that  the  value  stored in	PSINCR is interpreted in groff
	      basic units; the p  scaling  factor  should  be  employed,  when
	      assigning	a value	specified in points.

	      After  invoking .NH, the assigned	heading	number is available in
	      the strings SN-DOT (exactly as it	appears	in the formatted head-
	      ing), and	SN-NO-DOT (with	its final period omitted).  The	string
	      SN is also defined, as an	alias for SN-DOT;  if  preferred,  the
	      user may redefine	it as an alias for SN-NO-DOT, by including the

		     .ds SN-NO-DOT
		     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

	      before the first use of .NH, or simply:

		     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

	      after the	first use of .NH.

       .SH [xx]
	      Unnumbered subheading.  The use of the optional xx argument is a
	      GNU  extension,  which  adjusts the point	size of	the unnumbered
	      subheading to match that of a numbered heading, introduced using
	      .NH xx  with  the	same value of xx.  For example,	given the same
	      settings for PS, GROWPS and PSINCR, as used  in  the  preceeding
	      .NH example, the sequence:

		     .SH 2
		     An	Unnumbered Subheading

	      will print "An Unnumbered	Subheading" in 11.5pt bold text.

       The  ms	macros	provide	a variety of methods to	highlight or emphasize

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in bold type.  If	you specify  a	second
	      argument,	 groff	prints	it in the previous font	after the bold
	      text, with no intervening	space (this allows you to set punctua-
	      tion after the highlighted text without highlighting the punctu-
	      ation).  Similarly, it prints the	third argument (if any)	in the
	      previous font before the first argument.	For example,

		     .B	foo ) (

	      prints (foo).

	      If  you give this	macro no arguments, groff prints all text fol-
	      lowing in	bold until the next highlighting, paragraph, or	 head-
	      ing macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates
	      similarly	to the B macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in italic	type.  It  operates  similarly
	      to the B macro otherwise.

       .CW [txt	[post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its	 first argument	in a constant width face.  It operates
	      similarly	to the B macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt	[post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates	 simi-
	      larly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BX [txt]
	      Prints  its  argument and	draws a	box around it.	If you want to
	      box a string that	contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt	[post]]
	      Prints  its  first argument with an underline.  If you specify a
	      second argument, groff prints it in the previous font after  the
	      underlined text, with no intervening space.

       .LG    Prints  all  text	following in larger type (2 points larger than
	      the current point	size) until the	next font size,	 highlighting,
	      paragraph,  or heading macro.  You can specify this macro	multi-
	      ple times	to enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints all text following	in smaller type	(2 points smaller than
	      the  current point size) until the next type size, highlighting,
	      paragraph, or heading macro.  You	can specify this macro	multi-
	      ple times	to reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints all text following	in the normal point size (that is, the
	      value of the PS register).

	      Print the	enclosed text as a superscript.

       You may need to indent sections of text.	 A typical use for indents  is
       to create nested	lists and sublists.

       Use  the	 RS and	RE macros to start and end a section of	indented text,
       respectively.  The PI register controls the amount of indent.

       You can nest indented sections as deeply	as needed by  using  multiple,
       nested pairs of RS and RE.

       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

	      The  marker  is  usually	a  bullet character \(bu for unordered
	      lists, a number (or auto-incrementing number register) for  num-
	      bered  lists,  or	a word or phrase for indented (glossary-style)

	      The width	specifies the indent for the body of each  list	 item.
	      Once  specified,	the indent remains the same for	all list items
	      in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use the ta request to set tab stops as needed.  Use  the	 TA  macro  to
       reset tabs to the default (every	5n).  You can redefine the TA macro to
       create a	different set of default tab stops.

   Displays and	keeps
       Use displays to show text-based examples	or figures (such as code list-
       ings).	Displays  turn	off filling, so	lines of code can be displayed
       as-is without inserting br requests in between each line.  Displays can
       be  kept	 on a single page, or allowed to break across pages.  The fol-
       lowing table shows the display types available.

		   Display macro		Type of	display
		With keep      No keep
	      .DS L	       .LD	 Left-justified.
	      .DS I [indent]   .ID	 Indented (default indent in
					 the DI	register).
	      .DS B	       .BD	 Block-centered	(left-justi-
					 fied, longest line centered).
	      .DS C	       .CD	 Centered.
	      .DS R	       .RD	 Right-justified.

       Use  the	 DE  macro to end any display type.  The macros	Ds and De were
       formerly	provided as aliases for	DS and DE, respectively, but they have
       been  removed, and should no longer be used.  X11 documents which actu-
       ally use	Ds and De always load a	specific macro file from the X11  dis-
       tribution  (macros.t)  which  provides  proper  definitions for the two

       To keep text together on	a page,	such as	a paragraph that refers	 to  a
       table (or list, or other	item) immediately following, use the KS	and KE
       macros.	The KS macro begins a block of text to be  kept	 on  a	single
       page, and the KE	macro ends the block.

       You  can	 specify  a  floating keep using the KF	and KE macros.	If the
       keep cannot fit on the current page, groff holds	the  contents  of  the
       keep and	allows text following the keep (in the source file) to fill in
       the remainder of	the current page.  When	the page breaks, whether by an
       explicit	 bp  request  or by reaching the end of	the page, groff	prints
       the floating keep at the	top of the  new	 page.	 This  is  useful  for
       printing	 large	graphics  or tables that do not	need to	appear exactly
       where specified.

       The macros B1 and B2 can	be used	to enclose a text within  a  box;  .B1
       begins  the  box,  and  .B2  ends it.  Text in the box is automatically
       placed in a diversion (keep).

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors:	tbl, pic, eqn,
       and  refer.  Mark text meant for	preprocessors by enclosing it in pairs
       of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
	      Denotes a	table, to be processed by the tbl  preprocessor.   The
	      optional	H  argument instructs groff to create a	running	header
	      with the information up to  the  TH  macro.   Groff  prints  the
	      header  at  the  beginning  of the table;	if the table runs onto
	      another page, groff prints the header on the next	page as	 well.

       .PS and .PE
	      Denotes a	graphic, to be processed by the	pic preprocessor.  You
	      can create a pic file by hand, using the AT&T pic	manual	avail-
	      able  on	the Web	as a reference,	or by using a graphics program
	      such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
	      Denotes an equation, to be processed by  the  eqn	 preprocessor.
	      The  optional  align  argument  can be C,	L, or I	to center (the
	      default),	left-justify, or indent	the equation.

       .[ and .]
	      Denotes a	reference, to be processed by the refer	 preprocessor.
	      The  GNU refer(1)	manual page provides a comprehensive reference
	      to the preprocessor and the format of  the  bibliographic	 data-

       The  ms	macros	provide	a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a
       numbered	footnote by using the \** escape, followed by the text of  the
       footnote	enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You  can	specify	symbolic footnotes by placing the mark character (such
       as \(dg for the dagger character) in the	body  text,  followed  by  the
       text of the footnote enclosed by	FS \(dg	and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints	footnote numbers by changing the value
       of the FF register as follows:

	      0	     Prints the	footnote number	as a superscript; indents  the
		     footnote (default).

	      1	     Prints  the  number  followed  by	a period (like 1.) and
		     indents the footnote.

	      2	     Like 1, without an	indent.

	      3	     Like 1, but prints	the footnote number as a hanging para-

       You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using
       numbered	footnotes within floating keeps.  You can  set	a  second  \**
       between	a  \**	and  its corresponding .FS; as long as each .FS	occurs
       after the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS are in the  same
       order as	the corresponding occurrences of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are two ways to define headers and	footers:

       Use  the  strings  LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right
	  headers; use LF, CF, and RF to set the left, center, and right foot-
	  ers.	 This works best for documents that do not distinguish between
	  odd and even pages.

       Use the OH and EH macros to define headers  for  the	odd  and  even
	  pages;  and  OF and EF macros	to define footers for the odd and even
	  pages.  This is more flexible	than defining the individual  strings.
	  The syntax for these macros is as follows:

		 .OH 'left'center'right'

	  You can replace the quote (')	marks with any character not appearing
	  in the header	or footer text.

       You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following ta-
       ble lists the register names and	defaults:

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left	mar-   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length	       next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length     next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin      next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin   next page    1i

       Note that there is no right margin setting.  The	 combination  of  page
       offset  and line	length provide the information necessary to derive the
       right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The ms macros can set text in as	many columns as	will reasonably	fit on
       the  page.   The	 following  macros are available.  All of them force a
       page break if a multi-column mode is already set.  However, if the cur-
       rent mode is single-column, starting a multi-column mode	does not force
       a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
	      Multi-column mode.  If you specify no arguments, it  is  equiva-
	      lent  to	the  2C	 macro.	 Otherwise, width is the width of each
	      column and gutter	is the space between columns.  The MINGW  num-
	      ber register is the default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap text that you want to appear in the	table of contents in XS	and XE
       macros.	Use the	TC macro to print the table of contents	at the end  of
       the document, resetting the page	number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually	create a table of contents by specifying a page	number
       as the first argument to	XS.   Add  subsequent  entries	using  the  XA
       macro.  For example:

	      .XS 1
	      .XA 2
	      A	Brief History of the Universe
	      .XA 729
	      Details of Galactic Formation

       Use  the	PX macro to print a manually-generated table of	contents with-
       out resetting the page number.

       If you give the argument	no to either PX	or TC, groff suppresses	print-
       ing the title specified by the \*[TOC] string.

   Fractional point sizes
       Traditionally,  the ms macros only support integer values for the docu-
       ment's font size	and vertical spacing.  To overcome  this  restriction,
       values  larger  than  or	 equal to 1000 are taken as fractional values,
       multiplied by 1000.  For	example, `.nr PS 10250'	sets the font size  to
       10.25 points.

       The  following  four  registers	accept fractional point	sizes: PS, VS,
       FPS, and	FVS.

       Due to backwards	compatibility, the value of VS must  be	 smaller  than
       40000 (this is 40.0 points).

       The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original
       AT&T code.  Since they take  advantage  of  the	extended  features  in
       groff, they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  Other differences include:

       The internals	of groff ms differ from	 the  internals	 of  Unix  ms.
	  Documents that depend	upon implementation details of Unix ms may not
	  format properly with groff ms.

       The error-handling policy of	groff  ms  is  to  detect  and	report
	  errors, rather than silently to ignore them.

       Bell Labs localisms are not implemented.

       Berkeley  localisms,	in  particular	the  TM	and CT macros, are not

       Groff	ms does	not work in compatibility  mode	 (e.g.,	 with  the  -C

       There	is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       Groff	ms does	not provide cut	marks.

       Multiple  line spacing is not	supported (use a larger	vertical spac-
	  ing instead).

       Some Unix ms documentation says that the CW and GW number  registers
	  can  be  used	 to control the	column width and gutter	width, respec-
	  tively.  These number	registers are not used in groff	ms.

       Macros that cause a reset (paragraphs, headings,  etc.)  may	change
	  the  indent.	 Macros	 that  change  the  indent do not increment or
	  decrement the	indent,	but rather set it absolutely.  This can	 cause
	  problems  for	 documents that	define additional macros of their own.
	  The solution is to use not the in request but	instead	the RS and  RE

       The  number  register	 GS is set to 1	by the groff ms	macros,	but is
	  not used by the Unix ms macros.  Documents that  need	 to  determine
	  whether they are being formatted with	Unix ms	or groff ms should use
	  this number register.

       To make groff	ms use the default page	offset (which  also  specifies
	  the  left  margin), the PO number register must stay undefined until
	  the first ms macro is	evaluated.  This implies that PO should	not be
	  used early in	the document, unless it	is changed also: Remember that
	  accessing an undefined register automatically	defines	it.

       You can redefine	the following strings to adapt the groff ms macros  to
       languages other than English:

			     String	   Default Value
			   REFERENCES	 References
			   TOC		 Table of Contents
			   MONTH1	 January
			   MONTH2	 February
			   MONTH3	 March
			   MONTH4	 April
			   MONTH5	 May
			   MONTH6	 June
			   MONTH7	 July
			   MONTH8	 August
			   MONTH9	 September
			   MONTH10	 October
			   MONTH11	 November
			   MONTH12	 December

       The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.

       Use  \*Q	 and  \*U to get a left	and right typographer's	quote, respec-
       tively, in troff	(and plain quotes in nroff).

   Text	Settings
       The FAM string sets the default font family.  If	this string  is	 unde-
       fined at	initialization,	it is set to Times.

       The point size, vertical	spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for foot-
       notes are controlled by the number registers FPS, FVS, and FPD; at ini-
       tialization  these  are set to \n(PS-2, \n[FPS]+2, and \n(PD/2, respec-
       tively.	If any of these	registers are defined  before  initialization,
       the initialization macro	does not change	them.

       The  hyphenation	 flags	(as set	by the hy request) are set from	the HY
       register; the default is	14.

       Improved	accent marks (as originally defined in Berkeley's ms  version)
       are available by	specifying the AM macro	at the beginning of your docu-
       ment.  You can place an accent over most	characters by  specifying  the
       string  defining	the accent directly after the character.  For example,
       n\*~ produces an	n with a tilde over it.

       The following conventions are used for names  of	 macros,  strings  and
       number  registers.   External names available to	documents that use the
       groff ms	macros contain only uppercase letters and digits.

       Internally the macros are divided into modules; naming conventions  are
       as follows:

       Names	used only within one module are	of the form module*name.

       Names	 used  outside the module in which they	are defined are	of the
	  form module@name.

       Names	associated with	a  particular  environment  are	 of  the  form
	  environment:name; these are used only	within the par module.

       name does not	have a module prefix.

       Constructed	names  used  to	 implement  arrays  are	 of  the  form

       Thus the	groff ms macros	reserve	the following names:

       Names	containing the characters *, @,	and :.

       Names	containing only	uppercase letters and digits.

       /usr/share/tmac/ms.tmac (a wrapper file for s.tmac)

       groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1),  Groff:  The  GNU
       Implementation of troff by Trent	Fisher and Werner Lemberg.

       Original	 manual	 page  by James	Clark et al; rewritten by Larry	Kollar
       ([email protected]).

Groff Version 1.19.2	       4 September 2005			   GROFF_MS(7)
Command Section